Contents and Abstracts: 2010-2015:

2015, Issue LXI (LXV): Fasc. 1, Fasc. 2*, Fasc. 3-4

2014, Issue LX (LXIV): Fasc. 1, Fasc. 2, Fasc. 3-4

2013, Issue LIX (LXIII): Fasc. 1, Fasc. 2*, Fasc. 3, Fasc. 4

2012, Issue LVIII (LXII): Fasc. 1, Fasc. 2, Fasc. 3, Fasc. 4

2011, Issue LVII (LXI): Fasc. 1, Fasc. 2, Fasc. 3, Fasc. 4

2010, Issue LVI (LX): Fasc. 1, Fasc. 2, Fasc. 3, Fasc. 4*

* full text available
  

Open Acces Journal: 2020-2016
Contents and Abstracts: 2004-2009

2015, Issue LXI (LXV), Fasc. 1

Methylbenzylamine – applications, production, separation

MĂDĂLINA POŞTARU, CORINA CHEPTEA, GLADIOLA ANDRUSEAC, DAN CAŞCAVAL, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION

pages 9 - 21
Abstract
Methylbenzylamine is a chiral amine used as an intermediate for pharmaceuticals, especially for antidepressants and also as an emulsifying agent. There are two general strategies to obtain the target chiral amine: either direct asymmetric synthesis or kinetic resolution of a racemic amine. Methylbenzylamine was successfully obtained by asymmetric synthesis using pro-chiral ketones with ω-transaminase (ω-TA) from Vibrio fluvialis, recombinant Escherichia coli, and recombinant Pichia pastoris. The resolution of α-MBA was studied in a biphasic reaction system using (S)-specific ω-transaminase from B. thuringiensis JS64 strain, in a two-liquid-phase system with ω-transaminase from Bacillus thuringiensis, and in a solvent-bridge reaction system.
Keywords: methylbenzylamine; direct asymmetric synthesis; kinetic resolution.

Removal of inorganic pollutants from waste water by adsorption

CLAUDIA AVASILOAEI, MIHAELA VIZITIU

pages 23 - 38
Abstract
Adsorption is a process that can be applied in order to remove inorganic pollutants from water, using an adsorbent which is relatively inexpensive and does not require pre-treatment before use. This technique is superior to other methods because it has a simple design, low price and a high capacity of removal various types of pollutants. In this paper, some adsorbent materials suitable for removing inorganic pollutants such as: Ni (II), Cu (II), Cd (II), Zn (II), Pb(II), As (III), Cr (III), Cr (VI), Ag (I), Th (IV), Ur (VI), Eu (III) are presented.
Keywords: inorganic pollutants; adsorptions; adsorbents.

Management possibilities of plants used for phytoremediation of soils polluted with heavy metals

IULIA SIMONA BĂDESCU, OFELIA AXINTE, LAURA BULGARIU

pages 39 - 50
Abstract
Spatial expansion of socio-economic systems related to economic progress led to increasing pressure on systems under natural and semi-natural conditions and to depletion of available natural resource including soil. Because of the impact on the environment and large areas occupied by them, the contaminated sites must be restored. The use of conventional techniques for decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals is expensive and can have a negative impact on environment. The phytoremediation is a viable alternative for the removal of heavy metals from polluted soils, but after application of this method are obtained significant quantities of plants contaminated with heavy metals that must be managed. Recent studies have shown that the plants contaminated with heavy metals can be successfully used in the installations for to produce electrical energy from biomass, and thus are solved three problems: managing the plants contaminated with heavy metals, reduce the agricultural areas that are used for the production of biomass which is used for this purpose and also contribute to the energy supply and can play an important role in achieving the targets for use of renewable energy sources (RES). In this study are presented the main management possibilities of plants used for phytoremediation of soils polluted with heavy metals. The main advantages and limitations are pointed out for each technique. Basis of the results obtained from cost-benefits analysis, the most adequate management possibility of plants contaminated with heavy metals obtained after phytoremediation of polluted soils is presented and discussed.
Keywords: heavy metals; phytoremediation; contaminated crop management; pyrolysis.

Synthesis and characterization of aluminum complex dyes with Alizaringelb R as ligand

DOINA SIBIESCU, MIHAELA VIZITIU

pages 51 - 57
Abstract
This paper reports the synthesis and the study of the complexes with Al(III) and azo dye Alizaringelb R, (Mordant Orange I). The study of the new compounds was performed in aqueous solution and in solid state. The molar ratio was found by spectroscopy, pH measurements and electric conductivity measurements using the continuous variation methods. There were synthesised two complexes, at the molar ratio 1:1 and 1:2, metal: ligand. In order to determine the structure of the new compounds, the following analyses were performed: elemental analysis, UV-VIS spectroscopy, IR and XRD spectroscopy, and the thermal stability. From the experimental data one observes that the both new compounds have a thermal stability to about 100ºC. The experimental results were used to propose the structural formulae of these compounds. So, the proposed structures indicate that Alizaringelb R dye is a bidentate ligand.
Keywords: Alizaringelb R dye; ligand; complex compounds; Al(III).

Vitamins as food supplements for health care

ANCA MIHAELA MOCANU, GABRIELA CIOBANU, CONSTANTIN LUCA

pages 59 - 66
Abstract
This paper presents a review on the vitamins contained in the food supplements. Many vitamins function as such or after biotransformation, forming coenzymes of specific enzymes (all the vitamins A, B and K). Some vitamins act on similar pathways like hormones (vitamins A and D) and other (vitamins C and E) functions as antioxidant systems against harmful peroxides. The vitamin supplementation is widespread, food supplements being indicated in the diet as concentrated sources of nutrients or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect.
Keywords: food supplements; vitamins; health care.

Acetophenone applications, production and separation

LENUŢA KLOETZER, ALEXANDRA CRISTINA BLAGA, ALEXANDRA TUCALIUC, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 67 - 79
Abstract
This paper presents a literature survey regarding the applications, production, and separation methods for acetophenone. Acetophenone is used as component in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food flavoring agents and is even used as an additive in cigarettes, adhesive, paint and household cleaning agents. It can be obtained by chemical synthesis, by microbial and enzymatic processes. Regardless of the method used for acetophenone production, its separation is usually the limiting step. Due to large area of applications the acetophenone is a product raising a keen interest for developing new methods for production and separations.
Keywords: acetophenone; enzymatic processes; separation.

Hydrophobic and transparent silica hybrid sol-gel coatings for polycarbonate substrate

CRISTIAN PETCU, MARIUS CIPRIAN RUSU, VIOLETA PURCAR, CRISTINA LAVINIA NISTOR, CĂTĂLIN-ILIE SPĂTARU, RALUCA ŞOMOGHI, RALUCA IANCHIŞ

pages 81 - 91
Abstract
Hydrophobic and transparent silica hybrid films, deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrate, were prepared by sol-gel process at room temperature (25°C), using two coating routes. The first route consists in covering the PC substrate by dipping it into acidic solutions, containing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and different surface modifying co-precursors: octyltriethoxysilane (OTES), phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES), and diethoxydimethylsilane (DEDMS), when monolayer-coatings were obtained. By the second route, the wettability properties of polycarbonate were modified by preparing bilayer-coatings. Thus, the PC substrates were firstly dipped in acidic solutions, resulting the first layer, which was let to dry at room temperature for 5 days before being covered with perfluoroalchyltriethoxysilane (perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane or perfluorodecyl triethoxysilane). The water contact angle values of the PC surface samples covered with bilayer-coatings are higher compared with both, the references and the monolayer-coatings.
Keywords: silica hybrid film; hydrophobic coating; polycarbonate automotive applications.

2015, Issue LXI (LXV), Fasc. 2*

The natural and artificial drying process of grapes. Comparative studies

CLAUDIA COBZARU, GENOVEVA BORDEIANU, ADRIANA MARINOIU, NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU, RAMONA ELENA TATARU FARMUS, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 9 - 13    Download
Abstract
Grapes have been dried by two methods: natural – by sun exposure, and artificial – using laboratory drying oven. Naturally the grapes are dried for 190 h and artificially for 30 h. It has been proved that by natural drying the products do not modify their colour comparing to those artificially dried. Sun drying method is more economical then the artificial one because the last one requires higher energy consumption, but it has the disadvantage of requiring longer time.
Keywords: natural drying process; artificial drying process; grapes.

Effect of water quality parameter on fish culture in lake with reference to statistical approach

HEMANT PATHAK

pages 15 - 20    Download
Abstract
Water samples were collected from different locations around Lakha Banzara Lake. These water samples from 9 sampling points during three seasons were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics, viz. pH, Colour, Odour, Hardness, Chloride, Alkalinity, TDS, COD, Metal ion content etc. to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters on fish production. A Systematic study of correlation between water quality parameters has been done with the objective of minimizing the complexity and dimensionality of large set of data. An attempt has been made to find the seasonal quality of water in Lakha Banzara Lake, in order to establish relationship between physico-chemical characteristics and fish production of the lake and generate a statistical model for examine water quality.
Keywords: water quality; fish culture; statistical model.

New complexes of Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Ho(III), Dy(III), AND Tm(III) with N-hydroxyphtalimide

CORNELIU SERGIU STAN, MARCEL POPA, CRISTINA ALBU, MARIUS SEBASTIAN SECULA, PETRONELA HORLESCU

pages 21 - 35    Download
Abstract
The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of several lanthanide complexes with N-hydroxyphtalimide (HL). The main objectives of the present study aimed at finding the mechanisms of radiative transition taking place in the luminescence centers consisting in the trivalent cations of the considered lanthanides; establishing the combination ratios between lanthanide cations, such as Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Tm(III), and N-hydroxyphtalimide ligand; physical-chemical characterization of the obtained complexes; establishing the molecular structure of the obtained complexes; investigation of photoluminescence properties of the prepared complexes. The obtained lanthanide complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis, FTIR, TGA, EDX, SEM and fluorescence spectroscopy. Data show the formation of lanthanide complexes with N-hydroxyphtalimide ligand in 1:3 ratio.
Keywords: lanthanide complexes; N-hydroxyphtalimide ligand; luminescence.

Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide over Pd base catalyst

ADRIANA MARINOIU, CLAUDIA COBZARU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU, TUDOR POPESCU

pages 37 - 47    Download
Abstract
The performances of the commercial catalysts with various content of Pd in the hydrogenation process of carbon dioxide to methane have been analyzed. Catalytic test for carbon dioxide hydrogenation was conducted in mild reaction conditions (temperature up to 320°C and atmospheric pressure). Optimizing the main parameters such as, reaction temperature, H2/CO2 molar ratio, high CO2 conversion and total methane selectivity were obtained up to 300°C. Also, the performances of these catalysts in the hydrogenation process of carbon dioxide to methane in the conversion and selectivity terms have been highlighted by a mathematical model developed by means of the Table Curve 3D software. The mathematical model corresponding to the characteristic equation provides a good arrangement of the experimental points on the responding surface, simplicity of the characteristic equation and a good determination coefficient that is near unity.
Keywords: hydrogenation process; Pd base catalyst; mathematical model.

Synthesis, spectral characterization, thermal studies and structure of bidentate azo dye Cr(III) complexes

DOINA SIBIESCU, MIHAELA VIZITIU, ANDRA MANUELA CRUDU

pages 49 - 55    Download
Abstract
In this paper a two new complexes of Cr(III) and Acid red 44 azo dye were synthesized and characterized. The structures of these metal complexes of Cr(III) were confirmed by elemental analysis, spectroscopic UV-Vis, IR, conductivity and pH-metric measurements. Also was investigates the thermostability by thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTG). The X-ray powder diffraction reflects that azo dye complexes with Cr(III) are amorphous. The octahedral geometry of the metal complexes of Cr(III) structures was confirmed by experimental data. The ligand coordinates through the azo dye nitrogen atom and hydroxyl oxygen atom after deprotonation, so the proposed structures indicates that Acid red 44 dye is a bidentate ligand.
Keywords: Dye Acid red 44; ligand; complex compounds, Cr(III).

Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by biosorption on marine algae biomass

IULIA SIMONA BĂDESCU, LĂCRĂMIOARA NEGRILĂ, GABRIELA NACU, LAURA BULGARIU

pages 57 - 66    Download
Abstract
In this study, the marine algae biomass was used as biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution. The biosorption process was studied in batch systems at room temperature (19°C) as a function of initial Cu(II) concentration and contact time. The experimental results were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models for isotherm modeling, and pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models, for kinetics modeling. The Langmuir model best describe the biosorption isotherm of Cu(II) ions onto marine algae biomass, and the maximum biosorption capacity calculated in this case is 64.4445 mg·g-1. The kinetics data are well fitted by pseudo-second model, which means that in the biosorption mechanism the rate limiting step is the chemical interaction between metal ions from aqueous solution and superficial functional groups of biomass. The results included in this study indicate that the marine algae biomass can be considered a viable biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution.
Keywords: Cu(II) ions; marine algae biomass; biosorption; isotherm; kinetics.

2015, Issue LXI (LXV), Fasc. 3-4

Comparative study of water softening with new zeolite and ion exchange resins

LILIANA LAZĂR, BOGDAN BANDRABUR, RAMONA-ELENA TATARU-FĂRMUŞ

pages 9 - 20
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative study on the behaviour of different ion exchange materials used for food water softening based on new zeolite delivered in the form of natrium-aluminosilicate crystals (Crystal-RightTM CR100) and strong acid cation resins in natrium form (Purolite C100E) and in hydrogen form (Pure Resin PC002). The sorption capacity of the calcium cations from different synthetic solutions or groundwater samples as a measure of the three ion exchange materials performance has comparable values in the given experimental conditions. For the dose used of 8 g/L at 298 K and 24 h, the experimental results (q, mg/g; R, %) reporting to the materials dry state on the performance in the softening of the natural hard water samples, according to the following order: Purolite C100E (15.74 mg/g; 85.55%) > Pure Resin PC002 (12.45 mg/g; 66.69%) > Crystal-Right TM CR100 (11.94 mg/g; 63.98%). Purolite C100E resin has the best performances in the given experimental conditions, thus confirming its choice as a benchmark material for the comparisons. In the same given conditions the sorption capacity of Crystal-Right TM CR100 zeolite is around 25 % less than that of the resins, and of the benchmark can be positively influenced by increasing the temperature by approx. 10 degrees to the ambient temperature.
Keywords: Crystal-RightTM CR100, Purolite C100E, Pure Resin PC002.

Road inspection system prototype using mobile data acquisition

BOGDAN CRAMARIUC, LUCIA RUSU

pages 21 - 34
Abstract
Current techniques for pavement management and monitoring systems use satellite solution or specialized dedicated vehicles. We have analyzed several vehicles like Roadware–ARAN, Fugro Consultants LP and RoadCrack as specialized pavement monitoring vehicles for automated digital pavement distress surveying systems. For image processing and analysis we have studied WiseCrax, an analysis and classification system developed by Roadware, Swedish PAVUE system analysis and uniANALYZE, an automated crack detection. Our paper presents an original solution for road inspection system using mobile data aquisition as an image and/or movie, indispensible in pavement management and monitoring systems. The novelty brought by the present prototype is justified by the absence at international level of an automated, portable visual road inspection/monitoring system operable at traffic speeds which, given its integration and cost efficiency, can be made available in large numbers and mounted on non-dedicated vehicles.
Keywords: pavement management and monitoring systems; road inspection systems; camera; sensors; GPS.

Case study regarding the estimation of CO2 emissions generated by minibuses

MARIUS KOVACS, ARTUR GEORGE GĂMAN, EMILIAN GHICIOI, ANGELICA CĂLĂMAR, DANIEL PUPĂZAN

pages 35 - 46
Abstract
Transport in general represents an indispensable part of our life and society and road transport is an important pillar of it. It is well known that road traffic significantly contributes to emissions of air pollutants (gases) which generate climate changes. The paper highlights improvement of air quality in urban/rural areas by purchasing new and cleaner school buses, which contribute to reducing greenhouse gases emissions, using the CORINAIR method. In order to reduce emissions generated by school transport, car fleet renewal activities were developed across the country, new school buses (type 16 + 1 seats) equipped with EURO V that have reduced CO2 emissions and hence little impact on the environment, were purchased. In 2014, the staff within INCD INSEMEX - Petroşani conducted a comparative study on estimating CO2 emissions generated by school buses belonging to the old car fleet and the new one. Thus, emission estimation was carried out with the use of a calculation algorithm, according to level 3 of CORINAIR method, emissions of dust, CO, CO2, NOx and VOC being calculated for buses belonging to both old and new car fleet. Assessment of CO2 emissions from old (existing) and new (purchased) school buses was performed by the CORINAIR method, considering the following elements: number of vehicles per vehicle category; fuel consumption per fuel type; vehicles capacity utilization rates. Final CO2 emissions are estimated based only on fuel consumption, assuming that all of the fuel’s carbon content is completely oxidized to CO2. Given the impact on environment caused by vehicular transport pollutants, the paper presents synthesis data obtained for pollutant emissions resulting from new school buses having Euro V technology and pollutant emissions resulting from old school buses, having Non Euro technology.
Keywords: environment; CO2 emissions; air quality; pollutant.

Humprod model for avoiding romanian agricultural collapse, generated by the destruction of humus as a natural resource

MIHAI BERCA, VALENTINA-OFELIA ROBESCU, ROXANA HOROIAŞ, GABRIEL CROITORU

pages 47 - 61
Abstract
Romanian society is in a mediocre position as regards the phenomenon of development. Since it was never a part of the developed societies and the current social stratification and social parameters show that it is on a downward curve, we proposed a statistical model to position the current state of Romanian agriculture and to predict to what extent it is moving or not towards collapse. Unlike the HANDY Model, we used as assessment parameters the ones resulting from the natural state of resources. There have been used, for this purpose, soil humus content and soil biological activity or ecological activity index (biological). Methodologically, we have tried to obtain a probabilistic model. Size and dynamics of the two indicators are correlated with crop production, and therefore, with the evolution of life. The HumProd Model consists of two equations and shows a massive loss of humus and biological activity, which in the year 2050, the last year of the model’s forecast, is dangerously close to a collapse of the country. The model, which assesses the amount of any kind of energy in agriculture, shows that there also can be optimistic variants, which can lead to restoration of soil and to the postponement of collapse, unless other factors intervene and disturb the system.
Keywords: HANDY Model; HumProd; humus; agricultural collapse.

Pollution prognosis in the area of the industrial waste

MIHAIL LUCA, RĂZVAN-PAUL BĂLAN, ILIE GELU, CRISTIAN-FLORIN SCRIPCARIU

pages 63 - 73
Abstract
The paper presents the monitoring and the prognosis of the pollution phenomenon of underground water in the industrial waste area. Industrial waste causes pronounced underground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase. The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil and underground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking and data reception characteristic control section. By using simulation model (FEFLOW program package) provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. We successively treated a flow problem in four scenarios and two flow and transport problems (therefore, in total, 6 calculation variations). The simulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change in quantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measures appropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modeling of environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.
Keywords: industrial waste deposits; pollution flow modeling; pollution phenomenon; protection.

Impact of tillage operations for autumn wheat crop set up over some soil properties

IOAN ȚENU, RADU ROSCA, PETRU CÂRLESCU, CONSTANTIN LIVIU BUTNARU

pages 75 - 84
Abstract
Soil has an important role in sustaining life on earth and represents the support for the practice of agriculture, which provides the population’s food security and safety. Preserving the land’s production potential and ensuring a durable development is a key factor in the present times. In this context the researches presented in the paper analyze the effects of soil compaction and of the type of tillage machinery over some soil properties for autumn wheat crop set up. In order study the effects of the tillage machinery system and of the soil compaction twelve experimental variants were considered, based on two influencing factors: factor A = soil compaction, with 3 variants; factor B = tillage machinery system, with 4 variants. In order evaluate the effects of tillage machinery system and soil compaction the following indices were taken into account for each experimental variant: apparent volumetric mass, penetration resistance and stability of the soil’s structural elements, expressed by the means of two indices: weighted average diameter and water stability of the aggregates. The results of the experiments regarding the effect of soil compaction and tillage machinery system led to the conclusion that the technological variants that create favorable conservation conditions were the ones leading to minimum soil compaction, obtained through direct seeding into the stubble and no plowing.
Keywords: soil compaction; tillage machinery system; autumn wheat crop.

Study on competitive advantage through innovation and creativity in private universities (study on the Alma Mater University Sibiu, România)

LEILA BARDAŞUC, JOSÉ LUIS MARTÍNEZ RUBIO, MONICA DELIA DOMNICA, NICUŞOR MARCEL UDREA

pages 85 - 98
Abstract
In this article we started from the need to analyse the system of private higher education, to see what advantages this system can offer to its students. As a growing number of graduates from Romania choose to follow programs of study abroad in order to find a better paying job and specialize themselves, universities in Romania and especially private ones have difficulties in designing strategies to attract students. This analysis was conducted through a questionnaire administered to students that choose to follow educational programs at Alma Mater University of Sibiu Romania, a private university of Economic and Social Studies situated in the centre of the country and with an activity of 10 years on the educational market. The results obtained led to the discovery of some of the features that can enhance the interests of students, characteristics such as greater flexibility, increased use of innovative and practical programs. The importance of this work consists in the possibility to determine the views of students on the private university analysed, on the characteristics that they search for in an educational program and try to turn all of these into sources of competitive advantage.
Keywords: competitive advantage; innovation; educational systems; creativity; flexibility.

2014, Issue LX (LXIV), Fasc. 1

A new approach for optimizing the main components for PEM fuel cell

ADRIANA MARINOIU, DORIN SCHITEA, CLAUDIA COBZARU, IRINA PETREANU, IOAN IORDACHE, SIMONA MOSTEANU, LAURENŢIU PĂTULARU

pages 9 - 16
Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the manufacture a PEM fuel cell stack which can be used for portable applications. The originality of this work is a new coating technique called “ultrasonic spray coating technique” developed for membrane electrode assembly (MEA) manufacturing. Also this issue present new metal and graphite bipolar plates designed and manufactured by computer numerical control (CNC) technique. A fuel cell controller hardware is developed for fuel supply and system control. These are some of the main components of the fuel cell studied and manufactured by us in order to develop new efficient and reliable devices as PEM fuel Cell and PEM Fuel Cell Stack.
Keywords: PEM fuel cell, stack, bipolar plates.

Study about the development of a portable fuel cell system containing an integrated hydrogen generator

ADRIANA MARINOIU, CLAUDIA COBZARU, SIMONA MOSTEANU, IRINA PETREANU, MIRCEA RACEANU, CĂTĂLIN CAPRIS, IOAN IORDACHE

pages 17 - 28
Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the manufacture a PEM fuel cell stack containing a hydrogen generator, which can be used for portable applications, namely the developing hydrogen storage/generating system using NaBH4 ‘fuel’. The effective use of fuel cells in the military field requires a high energy density to sustain long missions (more than 24 h), safe, transportable, high purity and a reliable source of hydrogen. A particularly attractive hydrogen delivery system is sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a stable and inexpensive material, one of the highest hydrogen containing materials, which could provide hydrogen for a required period, at a required rate and at a required quantity, through the hydrolysis reaction, on the low-cost catalyst.
Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen generator, sodium borohydride.

Training of salespersons for a careers in the health care and food supplements industry

GABRIELA CIOBANU, MARIA HARJA, OCTAVIAN CIOBANU

pages 29 - 34
Abstract
The paper presents the main objectives and the methodology an international educational project funded through the Lifelong Learning Programme and the European Community. The Lifelong Learning Programme promotes innovative and transnational initiatives for the development of skills and competences for the inclusion of unemployed or low paid people in the European job market. The project called “Launching of Sector Skills Alliance for Training & Apprenticeship of Health Care and Food Supplements Salespersons” (H-CARE) uses advanced e-learning technologies to provide a platform-independent prototype for training and apprenticeship in the area of health care and food supplements. The project in which the “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iaşi is partner offers training courses in the area of health care and food supplements. Using the training courses discussed in this paper, the companies from the Food supplements and Health sectors may save their time and resources in order to improve the qualification of recently hired salespersons.
Keywords: project, training, health care, food supplements.

Water monitoring of the commune Holboca

GABRIELA GAVRILUŢĂ, LAURA BULGARIU

pages 35 - 41
Abstract
The Greek philosopher, Thales of Milet, said that universal principle of all things is water. We consume lifelong about 50 tons of water - more than any other product. For this reason, the health of all, depends on the quality of water consumed. The inhabitants of the Holboca village complained of kidney pain, gallbladder because of stones. Calcium deposits also occur on appliances resistances. The determinations of calcium, magnesium, chlorides and total hardness of the water samples from the fountains of the population, were performed using the titrimetric method. NO3- ions were determined spectrophotometrically at 412 nm with chromotropic acid in concentrated sulfuric acid medium. The study showed a weak basic character of water in the area, indicating the absence of bicarbonate ions to give a high temporary hardness. The water from the fountains in the Holboca village are very tough (DT > 30ºG), and water from neighboring villages are tough (DT = 20-30ºG). High hardness is a general feature of water from Moldova; the springs are formed on a layer of limestone. The content of the ions determined values are within in the quality standards for surface waters, making possible safe household consumption of water by the inhabitants. The water in the area can be a source of mineral water, without requiring a preliminary treatment.
Keywords: turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, chemical parameters.

Columnar zinc oxide synthesized under solvothermal conditions

GABRIELA APOSTOLESCU, RAMONA-ELENA TATARU-FĂRMUŞ, NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 43 - 48
Abstract
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc oxide powder obtained by a simple method using zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide, followed by the thermal treatment. The morphological properties and crystalline state of the powder obtained after calcination were studied and SEM analysis showed that the ZnO powder consists of larges spherical aggregates with a diameter of about 1 µm, made up from columnar particles around 500-700 nm length and 40-50 nm in diameter.
Keywords: ZnO, columnar habitus, solvothermal synthesis.

Determination of the degree of pollution of Bistriţa River on the Piatra-Neamţ sector

EUGENIA PÂRLEA, MĂDĂLINA ZĂBAVĂ

pages 49 - 58
Abstract
In addition to the air and the soil, water, a constituent element of the biosphere is also known as an environmental factor. Water, in all its forms has been and remains a key component of living matter and at the same time represents a valuable factor for human activity. This paper presents some general concepts of water (source and uses, water classification, description of water quality indicators), contamination of natural waters with pollutants (pollution source, natural water sources protection, water self-purification) and results obtained from experimental measurements (determination oxygen dissolved in water, the oxygen demand, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), oxidizable substances in water (CCOMn) qualitative determination of ammonia as ammonium ion by colorimetric method and determination of nitrite on Bistiţa River. It can be said that now, because of reduced industrial activity in the area Piatra - Neamţ, Bistriţa River has a low pollution, due to the discharge of sewage and storm water.
Keywords: Ground/Tap water, physico-chemical parameters, water quality index.

Methods used for heavy metals removal from wastewater

ANA MARIA BARGAN, GABRIELA CIOBANU, CONSTANTIN LUCA

pages 59 - 68
Abstract
This paper presents a review of methods used from heavy metals removing on industrial wastewater. High degree of wastewater contamination with heavy metals as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, As, Pb, Zn, with the harmful effects on human health, demands the using of the effective methods that can improve the quality of waters. Chemical precipitation, ion exchanges, adsorption, membrane filtration, electrodialysis and photocatalysis are using methods in water decontamination. The study aims mainly adsorption and ion exchange methods applied to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater using new adsorbent materials based on phosphates. Also, this work presents some of the advantages and disadvantages of removing heavy metals methods from wastewater.
Keywords: adsorption, ion exchange, heavy metals, apatite materials.

2014, Issue LX (LXIV) , Fasc. 2

Graphene-based materials for fuel cell applications

ADRIANA MARINOIU, CONSTANTIN TEODORESCU, DANIELA MARINESCU, MIHAI VARLAM, CLAUDIA COBZARU, AMALIA SOARE, CRISTINA IONESCU

pages 9 – 18
Abstract
In consideration of their high surface area, high conductivity, unique graphitized basal plane structure and potential low manufacturing cost, graphene nanosheets have been investigated as a support for low-temperature fuel cell catalysts. Graphene nanocomposites were synthesized as a simple chemical route by chemical oxidation and graphite oxide exfoliation and confirmed by characteristic analysis. The structure, morphology and properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Keywords: grapheme; fuel cell; X-ray diffraction; Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Modified nanotextured carbon materials for volatile organic compounds adsorption

ETELKA DAVID, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

pages 19 – 43
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to investigate the adsorptive potential of carbonaceous nanotextured materials for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), considered major pollutants of the environment. Adsorption of VOCs was carried out from gaseous stream using different precursors and under varying operating conditions. The adsorbent materials were characterized in term of macro structure and internal porosity. Examples of industrial developments were presented showing the nowadays technologies used for the removal of VOCs such as benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetone, phenols, alone and in a complex mixture.
Keywords: activated carbon; adsorption; volatile organic compound; carbon nanotube; graphite; fullerene

Analysis methods of chloride ions with industrial applications

LOREDANA FLUERARU, GABRIELA RĂUL, MĂDĂLINA TĂTARU, LAURA BULGARIU

pages 45 – 56
Abstract
Chloride ions concentration is an important parameter in many industrial processes and from this reason it must be determined with high accuracy. The Romanian standard recommends the analysis of chloride ions from various industrial samples by Mohr method. Unfortunately, the Mohr method cannot be always utilized for this purpose. In this study we have comparatively examined three different methods that can be used for chloride ions determination from industrial aqueous samples, in order to establish the applicability limits in each case. All these methods, namely: Mohr method, conductometric titration and turbidimetric method, are based on the reaction between chloride ions and AgNO3 standardized solution. The analytical parameters (such as: utilizable concentration range, detection limit, precision, etc.) were calculated from experimental results. The interferences caused by several common ions and heavy metals, that can be present in industrial samples were identified. The experimental results show that these three methods complement each other and allow the analysis of chloride ions from a much wider range samples.
Keywords: chloride ions; analysis methods; industrial applications.

Synthesis of four new hydroxyl azomethines

CORINA CERNĂTESCU, CLAUDIA COBZARU, ROXANA CANTA, ADRIANA MARINOIU

pages 57 – 66
Abstract
A series of four hydroxyazomethines have been synthetised using ortho-aminophenol and para-aminophenol as raw matherials and coupling them with benzaldehyde, anisladehyde and salicylaldehyde, respectively. The azomethines were purified, and analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy.
Keywords: Schiff bases; hydroxyl azomethines; transitional metals complexes.

Synthesis and characterization of H-ZSM-5 zeolite

SUSANA SOLANO ARANA, GABRIELA CIOBANU

pages 67 – 74
Abstract
The paper deals with the review of the synthesis and characterization techniques of the H-ZSM-5 zeolite. ZSM-5 zeolites are commonly prepared by the hydrothermal method of the gel containing precursors of silica, alumina, nonbridging metal cations, and organic template as structure directing agents (SDAs). The main characterization techniques used for H-ZSM-5 are explained. The most important applications of these zeolites are presented.
Keywords: H-ZSM-5; zeolite; characterization; synthesis.

The effect of the biofertilizer based on potassium humates and galactomannans extracted from seeds of Gleditsia Triacanthos used in extraroot plant fertilization

IRINA DĂBULEANU, MIHAELA GABRIELA DUMITRU, AURORA REISS

pages 75 - 83
Abstract
The study is based on the effect of a fertilizer based on potassium humates mixed with the galactomannans extracted from seeds of Gleditsia triacanthos, boron, calcium and zinc applied on tomato culture. The test of the biofertilizer was carried out on a culture of tomatoes consisting of a tomato variety named Precos. It was foliculary applied in a concentration of 10 mL/L at 4 weeks after planting in four stages at an interval of 10 days. The effect of the biofertilizer on tomato crops has been studied by measurements made on leaves (chlorophyll a and b, total Carotene, plasmatic membrane permeability, total content of free ions and permeability Index) and on fruits (antioxidant activity in hydrophilic and lipophilic phase). Two sets of samples were used: a control sample (blank) and a sample treated with the fertilizer obtained from potassium humates 0.1%, calcium chloride 1%, zinc sulfate 1% and galactomannan extracted from seeds of Gleditsia triacanthos 1%. The chlorophyll a content increased by 53.4% as compared to the control sample, chlorophyll b by 75% and total chlorophyll content by 60.3%. Carotenoid pigments content from the leaves varied between 10.75 mg·100 g-1 FW for the blank and 21.10 mg·100 g-1 FW for the fertilized sample, and the ratio between chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments ranged from 15.14 in the control sample (blank) to 12.36 in the fertilized sample. The permeability of the plasmatic membranes of tomato leaves had a value of 98 μSg-1 for the blank and 47 μSg-1 for the fertilized sample. The total content of free ions was between the value of 168 μSg-1 (blank) and 85 μSg-1 (fertilized sample) and the permeability index values was between 1.67 for the blank and 1.8 for the fertilized sample. The permeability of the plasmatic membranes of the tomato leaves had a value of 98 μSg-1 (blank) and 47 μSg-1 for the fertilized sample. The inhibition percent of free radicals in the lipophilic phase had a growth from 20.2% for unfertilized tomatoes to 33.5% for fertilized tomatoes and in the acetonic phase from 1.07% unfertilized tomatoes to 1.51% for fertilized tomatoes.
Keywords: humic acids; Gleditsia triacanthos; galactomannan; tomatoes.

2014, Issue LX (LXIV), Fasc. 3-4

Infant methemoglobinemia incidence in Iaşi County between 2010 and 2014 with reference to the drinking water supply system

RALUCA MITROI, VALENTIN BOBOC, LOREDANA POPOIU, DANIEL LEPĂDATU

pages 9 - 22
Abstract
Acute nitrate poisoning, registered mostly in children aged 0-1 years, is a medical emergency identified as a public health problem with relevance in assessing the health quality of the population in relation to environmental factors. Purpose: Knowledge of the incidence of acute methemoglobinemia recorded in Iaşi county between 2010 and 2014 and the evaluation of the causes favoring the occurrence of acute nitrate poisoning. Material and method: data regarding acute nitrate poisoning in all communes from Iaşi county was analyzed since 2010 until 2014, with reference to the provided water resources: centralized public systems of water supply or individual sources: wells. Acute methemoglobinemia incidence was analyzed in infants in five cases recorded between 2010 and 2014 compared with the situation in five other communes, in which there were no acute nitrate poisoning cases, having similar statistical background: general population, number of villages, 0-1 year old population, number of households, but different access to a water supply. Results: in communes where drinking water coming from centralized systems, with corresponding chemical and bacteriological indicators, was used for infant feeding there were no diagnosed cases of acute nitrate poisoning. In comparison, in communes where the population has access only to wells, the drinking water presents a major risk due to high content of nitrates and bacteriological inconsistency. Conclusions: The occurrence of new cases of acute nitrate poisoning imposes a need for continuous health promoting activities informing mothers on the risks they expose infants to and the sensitization of local authorities in order to find solutions for quality drinking water supply.
Keywords: methemoglobinemia; nitrate poisoning; water supply system.

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) – The miracle plant

CLAUDIA COBZARU, GENOVEVA BORDEIANU, ADRIANA MARINOIU, GABRIELA APOSTOLESCU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU, DOINA UNGUREANU

pages 23 - 33
Abstract
The hemp is one of the most important plants being cultivated for many years both in Romania and in other countries. Because it contains a small amount of tetrahydrocannabinol, hemp was associated with cannabis and it is listed as prohibited plants. However, due to the chemical composition rich in essential amino acids, Omega 3, Omega 6 and fiber, it was found that the plant can supply the most basic needs of man, namely: food, shelter, clothing and fuel. In literature there are many studies on nutritional value and uses of hemp and their analysis are the subject of this paper.
Keywords: hemp; miracle plant; uses; chemical composition.

Integrated design and control of 1,1-diethoxy butane production process

ALINA SMOCHINĂ, AHTESHAM JAVAID, COSTIN SORIN BÎLDEA

pages 35 - 47
Abstract
Acetals are additives which improve various fuels properties, such as cetane number, lubricity, biodegradability, flash point. Acetals can be obtained by reacting an alcohol with a suitable aldehyde, in the presence of an acid catalyst. The production of several acetals has been studied at laboratory scale, using conventional reactors, membrane reactors and reactive distillation. However, few studies are concerned with the design, control and economic evaluation of an entire plant. In this article we consider a process for production of 1,1-diethoxy butane by reaction of ethanol with butanal, catalyzed by Amberlyst 47. A simplified model of the Reaction – Separation – Recycle process is used to analyze the feasibility of different control structures. Irrespective of the reactor type (CSTR or PFR), the plant exhibits multiple steady states and a limited range of feasible production rates. The maximum production rate increases if more catalyst is used and the reaction is carried on at higher ethanol/butanal ratio. The complete plant design was achieved using Aspen Plus. A rigorous dynamic model was developed using Aspen Dynamics and used to prove the controllability of the entire plant.
Keywords: process design; process control; nonlinear behavior; acetal.

Synthesis and in vitro studies of new chitosan scaffolds

ALINA GABRIELA RUSU, MARCEL IONEL POPA, MARIA CELINA ALEXANDRICA, MARIA BUTNARU, LILIANA VERESTIUC

pages 49 - 56
Abstract
In this study, the in vitro degradation and cytotoxicity of hydrogels based on maleoyl-chitosan/citraconyl-chitosan and poly(acrylic acid) were studied for potential applications as wound dressings. The functionalization of chitosan and the presence of the two polymeric components in the hydrogels were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of newly synthesized hydrogels. SEM data showed an interconnected macroporous structure for prepared scaffolds with different pore size based on preparation conditions. The degradation behavior was evaluated by measuring the concentration in reducing units using spectrophotometrycally method and the results demonstrated that hydrogels based on maleoyl-chitosan are slightly degraded compared to those based on citraconyl- chitosan. The cytotoxicity tests indicated that the hydrogels based on citraconyl-chitosan and poly(acrylic acid) are more suitable for using as wound dressings.
Keywords: hydrogels; polymeric networks; morphology; degradation; cytotoxicity.

Testing of rheological properties of quaternized polysulfones/polyvinyl alcohol blends for upgrading biomembranes

ANCA FILIMON, RALUCA MARINICA ALBU, ECATERINA AVRAM

pages 57 - 67
Abstract
In this research has been investigated the rheological response of blends based on the modified polysulfones as against structural peculiarity of polymers from the blend, composition of polymer mixtures, as well as the types of interactions. Rheological behavior of complex systems, described by the nonlinear flow curves, indicates the impact of polyvinil alcohol content to polysulfone solutions, in order to facilitate the subsequently preparation of bioactive membranes. Thus, for blends with a higher amount of polyvinyl alcohol, namely over 0.5 weight fraction, appear a shear thinning behavior at low shear rates. Instead, chloromethylated polysulfones, polyvinyl alcohol, and blend with high content of polysulfones (i.e., 0.75 weight fraction), exhibit a Newtonian behavior over the entire shear rate domain. Additionally, increasing of the polyvinyl alcohol content favors polymer (1)-polymer (2) interactions and increases the ability to form association phenomena through hydrogen-bondings, leading to increases of the activation energy. The results allow us to conclude that these blends are optimum and may lead to specific properties that make them suitable for future investigations concerning membranes with controlled porosity used in biomedical applications.
Keywords: modified polysulfones; blends; shear-thinning; thermodynamic parameters.

Transport phenomena of polymer mixtures solution based on quaternized polysulfones

ADINA-MARIA DOBOS, ANCA FILIMON, ECATERINA AVRAM

pages 69 - 79
Abstract
Electrostatic interactions between polyions and counterions are, to a large extent, responsible for the behavior of polyelectrolytes in solution. From this reason, in this paper the effect of charge density on the transport properties of quaternized polysulfone/polyvinyl alcohol/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and quaternized polysulfone/cellulose acetate phthalate/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone thernary system were investigated by conductometric measurments. The obtained results, analyzed in terms of the Manning’s counterion condensation, were presented as a function of polymer solution concentration, polymer mixture composition, charge density and polarity of the solvent. It was found that, the values are affected by the charged groups from quaternized polysulfone, by the content of the neutral polymer from the mixtures and, also by the nature of the solvent. Also, low polarity of the medium results in the decrease of the number of free ions and, consequently, of the equivalent conductivity values.
Keywords: polysulfones; polymer mixtures; specific interactions; transport properties.

Evaluation of Solid Waste Management Scenarios using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique

CRISTINA GHINEA, DIANA ELENA COMANITA, PETRONELA COZMA, HANS Th. A. BRESSERS, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 81 - 89
Abstract
Four different waste management scenarios were evaluated in this paper with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method based on environmental, economic and technical criteria. Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system existent in Iaşi, Romania in 2008 (scenario 1, S1 – which included as treatment/elimination method of waste only landfilling) was the basis for development of scenarios. The actual municipal solid waste management system with the following processes: sorting, composting, landfilling represents scenario 2 (S2). Scenarios S3 including sorting, composting, anaerobic digestion, landfilling of municipal solid waste and S4 with sorting, composting, incineration as treatment methods are two possible alternatives to the present system. Since almost 40% from the amount of waste generated is represented by biodegradable waste, methods such as composting and/or anaerobic digestion must be taken into consideration for treatment of this type of waste. The Expert Choice software (built especially around the AHP) was applied to calculate the criteria weights and the final rank of alternatives scenarios. Performance sensitivity analysis was used to represent the variation of alternative ranking to changes in each criterion and illustrate the ratio of each alternatives weight percentage to criteria weights. The results show that the alternative S4 is ranked with the highest grade, while the alternative S1 is ranked with the lowest score. Overall the alternative S4 has an average of priority weights of 0.353 and is followed by S3 and S2 with 0.235 and respectively 0.208, while S1 alternative represents the last choice with priority weights of 0.204. Results showed that scenario 1 which includes only landfilling of solid waste is the worst scenario due to the negative environmental impacts. Even if Scenario 4 has high costs, it was found favourable since it proved to be the most suitable alternative from environmental and technical points of view. Software such as Expert Choice facilitates the sensitivity analysis.
Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, economic, environment, solid waste.

2013, Issue LIX (LXIII), Fasc. 1

Recent advanced in Micro → Nano porous CeO2 synthesis and characterizations

GABRIELA ANTOANETA APOSTOLESCU, NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU

pages 9 - 19
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of the literature concerning micro to nano-porous material based on cerium(IV) oxide. The paper presents the main synthesis methods, the most representative characterization techniques and various applications of this versatile material, as good catalyst for different reactions, in ceramics, photosensitive glass, infrared filters and UV protection or personal care products, replacing similar compounds based on zinc or titanium.
Keywords: ceria (CeO2), redox property, nanoporous materials, morphology-controlled synthesis.

Analysis of the wastewater quality of the city of Roman

GENOVEVA BORDEIANU, DOINA UNGUREANU, CECILIA BAUDE

pages 21 - 33
Abstract
The influence of the wastewaters on the environment depends on the composition and concentration of the pollutants contained in these wastewaters. The pollutants can be mineral, organic, bacteriological and biological substances. These can be found in higher or lower concentrations depending on the origin of the wastewaters. In comparison with other industrial branches, the food industry is the main supplier of wastewaters which originate from numerous physical, chemical and biochemical processes. Based on these considerations we analysed the wastewaters originating from the Technical College with specialisation Food Chemistry from the city of Roman.
Keywords: wastewater, food industry, pollutants.

Aspects of medical wastes management in Iaşi. Case study: a dental surgery

CARMEN ZAHARIA, MIHAELA ONOFREI

pages 35 - 46
Abstract
The paper presents some aspects of proper management of medical wastes in Iasi county area. Some data of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of individual medical wastes (i.e. estimated quantities and types of medical waste as anatomical-pathological wastes, pricking-cutting wastes, infectious wastes, non-dangerous wastes, etc.), collection system, treatment procedures (e.g., sterilizing, neutralization, disinfection using thermal, physical-chemical, ionizing-irradiative methods), elimination procedures (e.g., incineration), and final controlled storage of treated medical wastes (e.g., controlled storage of ashes, etc.) are discussed. The application of a management system of medical wastes in a dental surgery is presented together with a general solid wasted mass balance, specific production and collection data, indicating the companies implicated in the waste management system, quantities and procedures of treatment and final storage.
Keywords: dental surgery, medical waste, management, waste collection, treatment, elimination, final storage.

Solid-liquid extraction – an old but still future promising method

MARCELA POPA, EUGENIA TEODORA IACOB-TUDOSE, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

pages 47 - 60
Abstract
This paper presents a literature study on solid-liquid extraction, a separation method extensively used in chemical industry, food industry, metallurgical industry, environmental protection etc. Reference is made to the basic principles of operation, the influence factors, the major equipment and applications.
Keywords: solid-liquid extraction, extraction equipment.

Aspects concerning the integrated management of solid urban wastes in Botoşani county

CARMEN ZAHARIA, LILIANA MUTU

pages 61 - 73
Abstract
The paper presents some basic aspects concerning the integrated management of solid urban wastes in Botoşani county area. Some qualitative and quantitative data of individual types of solid wastes (i.e. estimated quantities and types of municipal or production wastes assimilated as municipal ones from industrial, agricultural, commercial units, institutes, education schools, other specialized units, wastes from clearing of streets, parks, gardens, wastes from constructions and demolishment), collection system, treatment procedures (e.g., reuse, recycling or recovery of useful constituents for their use as raw materials or energetic use - 3R treatment of wastes), elimination procedures (e.g., incineration), and final controlled landfilling of stabilized solid municipal wastes (e.g., controlled storage of solid wastes in ecological landfill) are summarized. The application status of this integrated management system of solid urban wastes in the Botoşani county area is described together with the specialized sanitation services and companies implicated in the solid waste management system.
Keywords: selective collection, final landfilling, integrated management, solid municipal and urban waste, construction wastes, 3R treatment.

Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption on lignin obtained from rape wastes

LAURA BULGARIU, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN, DUMITRU BULGARIU

pages 75 - 85
Abstract
In this study, the lignin obtained from rape wastes was used as sorbent for removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of initial solution pH, sorbent dosage and initial Pb(II) concentration, at room temperature (20±0.5°C). The higher value of adsorption capacity was obtained at pH 6.0 (acetate buffer) and 5 g×L-1 sorbent dose. The value of 53.67 mg×g-1 obtained under these experimental conditions indicate that the lignin obtained from rape wastes has a good capacity for Pb(II) ions adsorption, and can be considered a potential sorbent for effluents treatment processes. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium data and the isotherm parameters were calculated for each case. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was 175.44 mg×g-1, at studied temperature.
Keywords: Pb(II) ions, adsorption, lignin, rape wastes.

Carbon dioxide absorption into new amines aqueous solutions

RAMONA-ELENA TATARU-FARMUŞ, ILIE SIMINICEANU

pages 87 - 98
Abstract
The absorption of CO2 into aqueous solutions of amines has been studied at three temperature (298, 313, 333 K) in a Lewis type absorber with a constant gas-liquid interface area of (15.34 ± 0.05) x 10-4 m2. The experimental results have been interpreted using the equations derived from the two film model with the assumption that the absorption occurred in the fast pseudo- first- order kinetic regime. The results confirmed the validity of this assumption for the experimental conditions: the enhancement factor was always greater than 3. The rate constant derived from the experimental data (kov, s-1) was correlated through the Arrhenius plot (ln kov = A-B/T), and the optimal values of the constants A and B were obtained by the linear regression. The absorption of CO2 from flue gas into binary mixtures of ethylenediamine + water and triethylenetetramine + water solutions is a promising process for practical application at least from the kinetic point of view.
Keywords: acid gas absorption, ethylenediamine, triethylenetetramine, Lewis cell absorber, enhancement factor, rate constant.

2013, Issue LIX (LXIII), Fasc. 2*

Effect of the metal loading degree and the impregnation method on the structural, textural and catalytic properties of CuNi/SBA-15 materials

CONSTANTIN RUDOLF, ALEXANDRU CHIRIEAC, BRÎNDUŞA DRĂGOI, ADRIAN UNGUREANU, EMIL DUMITRIU

pages 9 - 22    Download
Abstract
CuNi/SBA-15 catalysts with different metal loadings (1, 2, 5 and 10 wt.%) and constant Cu:Ni weight ratio of 1:1 were prepared by wet impregnation (WI) and incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) of the SBA-15 silica support with the corresponding aqueous solutions of the metallic nitrate precursors. Structural, textural and catalytic properties of these samples are reported in the present study. According to the low-angle XRD patterns and nitrogen physisorption isotherms, all the CuNi/SBA-15 catalysts have highly ordered 2D hexagonal mesostructure while XRD at high angles revealed the formation of the specific phases of NiO and CuO with crystallites size slightly larger for the samples prepared by WI that those prepared by IWI. Liquid phase hydrogenation of trans-cinnamaldehyde was used to evaluate the catalytic properties of the bimetallic supported catalysts. Depending on the preparation method, differences between the catalytic behaviors of the two series of catalysts at the same metal loading degree were noticed, especially at low metal loadings. Improvements of the catalytic activity with the increasing of the metal loading from 1 to 5 wt.% were observed. Further increasing of the metal loading up to 10 wt.% did not considerably change the catalytic behavior of the materials. Therefore, a loading degree of 5 wt.% in metals was found to be optimum value in relation to the dispersion of metal nanoparticles (NPs) as well as the activity and selectivity of the catalysts.
Keywords: CuNi/SBA-15, impregnation, trans-cinnamaldehyde, hydrogenation.

Characterization of granulated and powdered solids

CRISTIAN ANDREI HOROBA, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ, LILIANA HOROBA

pages 23 - 34    Download
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the physical properties of urea, granules and powder, for characterizing the material behavior during storage, handling and processing. The particle size distribution, bulk density, Carr’s Index, Hausner ratio, porosity and specific surface area of the bed, angle of repose and flow rate were determined for granular and powdered urea. Also, the influence of the particle size on the physical and flowing properties was investigated. Experimental results are in good concordance with those of the literature.
Keywords: particle size distribution, bulk density, angle of repose, bed porosity.

Solid waste recycling for remanufacturing and bioremediation

CRISTINA GHINEA, ISABELA MARIA SIMION, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 35 - 48    Download
Abstract
Economic growth and increased urban agglomerations lead to rapid increase in volume and types of waste. Ideal situation according to the cradle-to-cradle principle is a world without waste, but this it is not yet achievable. The manners in which the growing amount of solid waste are managed influence the human health and the environment and could contribute significantly to resources conservations. In recent years the attention was focused on the fact that solid waste should be managed according to the hierarchy of waste which comprises the most and less favorable options for waste management. Methods like recycling, reuse, remanufacturing, bioremediation were applied to diminish the amount of waste, pollution of the environment, as well as to reduce the amounts of virgin raw materials used for different product manufacturing so as to obtain economic and social benefits. Recycling materials can offer valuable products for industry in the process of remanufacturing. Also, some of these materials possess a high potential to be applied in environmental bioremediation, in particular as sorbents. This paper discusses the situation of solid waste in Europe and the real chances to reduce the waste quantities by remanufacturing and/or valorize them as sustainable tools in bioremediation.
Keywords: bioremediation, recycling, remanufacturing, waste management.

A new way for V2O5 /Fe2O3 separation and recovery from spent catalysts

DANIEL SUTIMAN, GABRIELA ANTOANETA APOSTOLESCU, NICOLAE FOCA, DANIEL MARECI, ADRIAN CĂILEAN

pages 49 - 59    Download
Abstract
The paper presents data on the study of V2O5 and Fe2O3 spent catalysts used in the sulphuric acid obtaining process. During oxidation of SO2 to SO3 the spent catalysts undergoes a series of physical and chemical transformations, the most important is the reduction of V5+ and Fe3+ ions in contact with sulphur dioxide. Thus, V5+ is reduced to V4+ and V3+ resulting VO2, VOSO4 and V2(SO4)3 and Fe3+ ions are reduced and passing at FeSO4. Resulting sulphates are soluble in water and can be separated by filtering support (mass of) insoluble. Vanadium oxides VO2 and V2O3 or V2O5 surface retain some quantities of SO2 and SO3. Due to these processes, novel compounds are resulting that can hydrolyse in contact with water, and creating acidic solutions - corrosive agents which are environmental pollutants. Also, the separating process of vanadium (V4+ and V3+) from spent catalysts as V2O5 and Fe3+ and Fe2+ in the form of Fe2O3 is presented. The resulting V2O5 and Fe2O3 oxides are insoluble and can be separated from initial solutions and reused.
Keywords: spent catalysts, divanadium pentoxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium acid phosphate, ion exchange, precipitation, separation, neutralization.

Characterisation of chitosan modified by carboxymethilation

DOINA ASANDEI, ANCA MOISE, GABRIELA LISĂ, ELENA BOBU

pages 61 - 69    Download
Abstract
Modified chitosan was obtained by the reaction of chitosan and monochloroacetic acid. The characterization of the obtained reaction product was achieved by FT-IR spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the transformation of chitosan in carboxymethylchitosan by the appearance of specific functional group absorption bands. The results of the thermal degradation of carboxymethylchitosan are consistent with the literature. Polarized light optical microscopy shows that, compared to the chitosan, melting was evidenced for the synthesised carboxymethylchitosan, probably due to the introduction of large lateral group on the hydrocarbon chain. After functionalizing, the melting temperature of chitosan fell slightly below the degradation temperature, which demonstrates its successful derivatization. Modified chitosan has better features for use in cosmetics.
Keywords: chitosan, FT-IR, polarized light microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis.

Direct determination of menthol using a simple spectrophotometric method

ANDA ANASTASIA-SANDU, SERGIU BÎRZU, IRINA DIŢU, LAURA BULGARIU

pages 71 - 80    Download
Abstract
A simple, selective and accurate spectrophotometric method is proposed for rapid and direct determination of menthol and the optimal experimental conditions along with other analytical parameters have been evaluated. This method is based on the reaction between menthol and salicylaldehyde, in concentrated sulphuric acid media (96-98%), when a red-orange coloured product is obtained. The visible spectra of this reaction product, recorded against a blank solution, show a maximum at 510 nm, and the absorbance remains stable for at least 12 h. The method allows the menthol determination over the range 1.33 – 13.33 μg·mL-1, with a molar absortivity of 1.1533·104 L·mol-1·cm-1 and a detection limit of 0.17 ppm. The interferences caused by several organic compounds (acetic acid, citric acid and ascorbic acid) which can be present along menthol in various samples were also determined. The validation of the spectrophotometric method was done by recovery test of menthol from green tea. The results show that the proposed method can be successfully used for direct determination of menthol and the main advantage is that the coloured reaction product appears immediately after mixing the reagents.
Keywords: menthol determination, salicylaldehyde, spectrophotometric method.

Influence of different calcium and phosphorus sources in the synthesis of nanohydroxyapatite powder

ANA-MARIA BARGAN, SIMONA ILISEI, GABRIELA CIOBANU, CONSTANTIN LUCA

pages 81 - 87    Download
Abstract
Due to the high similarity to the inorganic material of bone and tooth, also due to its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most investigated materials for biomedical applications as bone substitute and implants. The main purpose of the research in this study is to compare two type of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite performed by chemical precipitation method using different source of calcium and phosphorus. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, chemical precipitation method.

Pretreatment of vegetal materials by ionic liquid dissolution

ADINA ELENA PÂNZARIU, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN, IONEL MANGALAGIU

pages 89 - 95    Download
Abstract
In this work investigates effects of dissolving vegetal materials in the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride, 3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-1-(3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl) imidazolium bromide. Good solvent for cellulose is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, whereas for vegetal material the best solvents is 3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-1-(3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl) imidazolium bromide. A total reducing sugar (TRS) yield of 39.75% was obtained in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride at 105ºC in 300 min reaction time.
Keywords: ionic liquid, vegetal materials, TRS, crystallinity index.

2013, Issue LIX (LXIII), Fasc. 3

Pertraction equipments

ALEXANDRA CRISTINA BLAGA, ALEXANDRA CÂRLESCU, ANCA IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 9 - 23
Abstract
Among the different separation methods, membrane operations have the potential to replace conventional energy-intensive techniques. Pertraction is a new and promising membrane-based extraction process, which allows organic and inorganic compounds to be removed from dilute streams. This review presents and evaluates the complex equipments used for pertraction. Many types of pertractors were used over time, of real importance being which one offers better constructive possibilities, in order to make the correct choice of membrane.
Keywords: pertraction, liquid membrane, pertractors, extraction.

Biocomposites from renewable resources – a review on current trends and challenges in building energy savings

PETRONELA NECHITA, ŞTEFANIA MIŢA IONESCU

pages 25 - 35
Abstract
Lately many types of composites have been developed, mostly by combination of bio-fibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, pineapple leaf fiber with synthetic polymer matrices. Natural fiber–reinforced polypropylene composites have attained commercial attraction in automotive industries. But in the field of new buildings construction and especially in the renovation and thermal insulation of old buildings, natural fiber−polypropylene or natural fiber−polyester composites are not sufficiently eco-friendly because of the petroleum-based source and the non-biodegradable nature of the polymer matrix. Using natural fibers with polymers based on renewable resources will allow many environmental issues to be solved. The bio-composites are emerging products as a viable alternative to glass fiber reinforced composites especially in automotive and building product applications. The aim of this paper is to cover the recent developments and key challenges for introduction of renewable materials in the building composites production.
Keywords: bio-composites, lignocelluloses fibres, polymer matrix, building isolation.

Synthesis methods of II-VI quantum dots

CORNELIU SERGIU STAN, MARIUS SEBASTIAN SECULA, MARCEL POPA

pages 37 - 57
Abstract
Research on semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), also known as quantum dots (QDs), has increased rapidly in the past few decades. Extensive studies have been performed on the influence of quantum confinement on the electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline semiconductors. The size dependence of their electronic and optical properties is one of the unique features of semiconductor NCs, turning them into promising materials for a wide range of applications in optoelectronics and medical imaging techniques. Recent advances in synthesis methods of quantum dots with very high quantum yields could stand at the basis of large scale production of high quality QD for the mentioned applications. The present review is focused on the preparation of II–VI semiconductor NCs due to their various applications in optoelectronics, especially for solid state lightning, which is one of the most promising solutions for environmentally-friendly energy saving lightning devices. Some of the reviewed synthesis methods may not be scalable at mass production due to the using of expensive or health hazardous reactants but remain of great interest for laboratory scale synthesis. Some practical laboratory scale synthesis and separation and purification methods are also included.
Keywords: semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum dots, QD synthesis, colloidal synthesis.

Mixed oxides derived from chromium substituted hydrotalcites like anionic clays: studies of the structural properties

SOFRONIA BOUARIU, MAGDA PUSCASU, GABRIELA CARJA

pages 59 - 67
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study comparatively the structural features of two types of mixed oxides derived from chromium substituted hydrotalcite-like clay. For this purpose CrLDH clays were prepared previously, using inorganic salts of chromium as trivalent ion source and inorganic salts of magnesium/nickel as divalent ion source. This step was followed by the controlled thermal treatment of the clays up to 750°C, this giving rise to the derived mixed oxides. The chromium substituted hydrotalcites like clays were obtained by the coprecipitation method. The specific structural properties of the described mixed oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS spectroscopy.
Keywords: CrLDH, mixed oxides, structural features, XRD, UV-VIS.

Grapes: chemical composition, extraction and application

CLAUDIA COBZARU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU, ADRIANA MARINOIU, GENOVEVA BORDEIANU

pages 69 - 79
Abstract
Archaeological evidences found along the time attest the existence of grape vine long before apparition of the human being. Although a long period of time the grapes were consumed only as fresh products regarded as a valuable gift of nature, the application of wine processing operations resulted in the development of grape vine cultures used on this purpose. The numerous studies performed along the years on the chemical composition of the grapes made evident their potential using in various industries. Many studies are to be found in scientific literature on the chemical composition of the grapes, extraction of the active compounds and their use, these topics being discussed in the present paper.
Keywords: grape vine, grapes, extraction, characterization, uses.

Effect of the catalytic ink preparation method on the performance of membrane electrode assemblies

MIRCEA RACEANU, ADRIANA MARINOIU, CLAUDIA COBZARU, ELENA CARCADEA, MIHAI VARLAM, DORIN SCHITEA

pages 81 - 88
Abstract
The deposition of the right catalyst content on the electrodes by a simple method is desirable in the effective production of MEA. In this study a precursor ink composition is developed to produce high performance catalyst layers. Utilized dispersion solvents are water, methanol, iso-propanol and glycerin. The effect of dispersion solvents in catalyst ink on performance of structural catalyst layer is studied. The control of the surface tension of the catalyst ink is fundamental to allow the catalyst layer deposition by spraying technique and an optimal ink composition was studied. Different catalyst inks with various solvents were prepared and the effect of dispersion solvent was discussed. The prepared CCM (catalyzed coated membrane) were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine its morphology: the thickness and uniformity of the catalyst layer.
Keywords: Proton exchange membrane, catalyst layer, membrane electrode assembly.

Theoretical description by molecular modelling of micellar aggregates of functionalized azo-polysiloxanes

ELENA-LUIZA EPURE

pages 89 - 96
Abstract
In aqueous solution the amphiphilic molecules self-assemble into various aggregates. The aim of the article is a theoretical description of the aggregates generated by amphiphilic systems of ammonium functionalized azo-polysiloxanes. Complementarity of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments of the synthetic polymers determines their aggregation into micellar structures. As a function of the chemical structure of the ammonium group more or less compacted aggregates were obtained. Due to the particular polymers architecture some difficulties concerning the molecular simulation was encountered. As a consequence, the selection of a correct force field was crucial in the simulation procedure. The obtained structures were validated by the experimental data.
Keywords: amphiphilic azo-polysiloxanes, self-assembling process, molecular dynamic.

Biomass in environmental remediation – a review

MARIANA DIACONU, CAMELIA SMARANDA, RALUCA MARIA HLIHOR, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 97 - 113
Abstract
Environmental contamination with heavy metals and other pollutants hardly biodegradable, that threaten the ecosystems and human health, require increasing standards of pollutants detection and treatment. A number of methods have been developed for the removal of pollutants, especially heavy metals and dyes. Besides physical and chemical methods of treatment, biological methods have received growing interest, because of their efficiency, simplicity, and availability of biomass. Lots of bioremediation technologies which include biosorption processes used to decontaminate the polluted sites. Biosorption is specific to both living and dead biomass being a promising tool for pollutant removal and/or recovery. During biosorption, various kinds of biomass (bacterial, fungal, algal and from plants) are used which helps to trap heavy metals. In parallel, bioaccumulation is described as involving living biomass. The paper analyses various categories of biomass, such as bacterial and fungal dead and living biomass, algae and plants as potential biosorbents and/or bioaccumulators for environmental contaminants, in particular heavy metals. The study focuses on their availability, mechanisms and capacities for heavy metals removal.
Keywords: biosorption, biosorbent, bioaccumulation, bacteria, fungi, algae, plants.

2013, Issue LIX (LXIII), Fasc. 4

Aloe Vera (Aloe Barbadensis Miller) Characterization And Application

CLAUDIA COBZARU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU, ADRIANA MARINOIU

pages 9 - 17
Abstract
In recent decades the medical investigations have confirmed and extended the range of the curative properties attributable to the “biter substance” in the plant Aloe Vera. Although it is not the only species with curative effects Aloe Vera gives the best results as settled by the most recent investigations in the field. The most valuable component of the plant is the gel containing more than 75 nutrient substances, 200 active components, 20 minerals, 18 amino acids and 12 vitamins. Due to its complex composition, the Aloe Vera gel could to be found in the composition of many cosmetics for its hydrating, emollient, anti-inflammatory effects with no irritating action on the skin. A large number of studies on the chemical composition of the plant and the uses in medicine and cosmetic fields are reported in literature and their analysis is the aim of the present paper.
Keywords: Aloe Vera, chemical composition, extraction, applications.

Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers As Approach To Achieve Proton Exchange Membrane For PEM Fuel Cell

IRINA PETREANU, ADRIANA MARINOIU, CLAUDIA COBZARU, AMALIA SOARE, ELENA CARCADEA, CĂTĂLIN CAPRIS, VASILE TANISLAV, MIRCEA SAVA TEODORESCU

pages 19 - 29
Abstract
Commercial Poly(-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) was chosen to synthesize a polymer electrolyte for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). The PPO is an aromatic, high performance plastic, cheap and easy to modify by polymer analogous reaction. By sulfonation with several amounts of cholorosulfonic acid was produced an ionomer with proton exchange behaviour and different sulfonation degrees. Membrane films have occurred by recasting from solution of sulfonated product in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF). The sulfonated polyphenylene oxide (sPPO) was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), was characterised by titration to determine Ion Exchange Capacity (IEC) and Sulfonation Degree (SD) and the morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results are in behalf of using the sulfonated polyphenylene oxide as proton exchange membrane for PEMFC.
Keywords: aromatic polymers, polymer electrolyte, fuel cell, proton exchange membrane.

Theoretical Study Of Aggregation/Disaggregation Process Of Triethylamine Modified Azo-Polysiloxanes

ELENA-LUIZA EPURE

pages 31 - 38
Abstract
Molecular dynamic simulations were performed on amphiphilic azopolymers systems (polysiloxanes modified with 32% azophenol and 35% triethylamine). Theoretical studies were been carried out in order to investigate the self-assembling process of the polymers and the disaggregation as a consequence of the UV irradiation. The simulations started from a detailed molecular model with a clear representation of the polymer and water molecules. This study predicts a highly dense structure corresponding to the trans configuration of the pending azo group, correlated with experimental data. A less compact structure was obtained for solvated cis azo- polysiloxanes.
Keywords: micellar aggregate, molecular dynamics, non-bonded interactions, potential energy.

Pneumatic Bioreactors With Immobilized Biocatalysts: An Overview

RAMONA-MIHAELA MATRAN, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 39 - 47
Abstract
The air-lift bioreactors, which are the most attractive type of pneumatic bioreactors, have been widely used in the last decades, due to their numerous advantages compared to the stirred ones: low energy consumption, simple design and exploitation, easily maintaining of the medium sterility due to the lack of the moving elements, superior values of heat and mass transfer rates, and, especially, the possibility of growing microorganisms sensitive to high shear stress. At the same time, the use of immobilized biocatalysts in chemical bioprocesses became a prevalent working-method, owing to the higher thermal and mechanical stability of biocatalysts, easier recovery of the immobilized microorganisms, high specificity of the biochemical reaction, and low overall cost of the biochemical technology. This work reviews the main applications of the pneumatic bioreactors with immobilized biocatalysts, as well as the characteristics and performances of bioprocesses carried out in air-lift bioreactors catalyzed by biocatalysts entrapped on various supports by different immobilization techniques.
Keywords: air-lift bioreactor, immobilized biocatalysts, hydrodynamics, oxygen mass transfer.

“Urtica Dioica” Description. Taxonometry.Applications

IRINA CÎSSA, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 49- 57
Abstract
or common nettle, “Urtica dioica”, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and is the best-known member of the nettle genus Urtica. The plant has many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on its leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles that inject histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals. The general aspects, taxometry, cultivation, harvest, conditioning are also described in this paper. The plant has a long history of use in medicine and cosmetic and as a food source.
Keywords: urtica dioica, stinging nettle, acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin.

Inorganic Pigments: Synthesis And Luminescent Properties

NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU, GABRIELA ANTOANETA APOSTOLESCU

pages 59 - 72
Abstract
Inorganic pigments, particularly those with special properties such as the luminescent have seen an appreciable development in recent years due to the major advantages that they present, compared to the natural organic materials: synthesis simple and easy operation, low production costs, easy maintenance, good weathering resistance. Luminescent pigments are used in various applications such as X-ray and computer tomography technology, cathode ray tubes, lighting, safety and accident prevention (inorganic pigments phosphorescent brightness over a long time) encoding products, detect infrared radiation or thermoluminescent dosimeters. Based on information from the literature, this paper provides an overview of the main applications of luminescent pigments, as well as their characteristics and performance.
Keywords: inorganic pigments, luminescent pigments, optical property, activated halides.

Nickel Substituted Hydrotalcite Like Clays: Studies On Their Structural Evolution To Mixed Oxides

SOFRONIA BOUARIU, LIVIA BIBIRE, GABRIELA CARJA

pages 73 - 81
Abstract
The influence of the nature of the trivalent ion from the hydrotalcite like network on the structural evolution of NiLDHs to mixed oxides was studied as a function of nickel content of the clay. The substituted hydrotalcite - like clays studied in present work are described by a different composition of the layers regarding the nature of trivalent ion. Aluminum and respectively iron salts were used as source of trivalent ion in this study. The structural evolution of NiLDHs-like anionic clays to mixed oxides and their structural features were investigated by means of specific characterization techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) and IR spectroscopy (FTIR).
Keywords: NiLDH, mixed oxides, structural evolution, XRD, TG-DTA, FTIR.

Decoloration Study Of Remazol Arancio 3R Azo Dye From Aqueous Solutions By Homogeneous Fenton-Like Oxidative Processes

CARMEN ZAHARIA, CRISTINA MĂDĂLINA LUCA, ANDREEA ROMAŞCANU

pages 83 - 93
Abstract
Some laboratory scale set-up results of homogenous oxidative processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced Fenton-like oxidation process with ferrous-based catalyst) applied for textile Remazol Arancio 3R azo dye solutions were summarized. The different influences of few operating parameters of this advanced oxidative process (i.e. pH, H2O2 concentration, homogenous catalyst concentration, dye concentration, temperature, oxidation time and stirring regime) were studied to perform the adequate or corresponding values for the highest performance of decoloration or/and dye removal. The highest decolouration efficiency (total decolouration) in the case of a 50 mg-Remazol Arancio 3R dye-containing solution was performed at pH (2.34), with 88.64 mM H2O2, 0.09 mM FeSO4, temperature of 19-20°C, continuous stirring regime (30 rpm), after only 30 min of homogenous advanced oxidation. Some very good results (decoloration of 94.779% after 90 min with a little decreasing at 92.05% after 120 min) were performed also working at pH (7.28), with 88.46 mM H2O2, 0.18 mM FeSO4, continuous stirring regime, after only 10 min. These data are encouraging and useful in preparation of future experiments, and also of industrial applications and process optimization.
Keywords: decolouration, Remazol Arancio 3R azo dye, advanced homogenous oxidation, Fenton reagent, aqueous system, treatment performance.

New Configurations Of Immobilized Biocatalysts Beds - Bioethanol Production In Basket Bioreactors

DAN CAŞCAVAL, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, RAMONA MIHAELA MATRAN

pages 95 - 112
Abstract
The basket bioreactors represent a new generation of equipments which offer the possibility to reach high mass and heat transfer rates inside the broths, as well as superior rates of substrates consumption and products biosynthesis. These advantages are due to the complex hydrodynamics around and inside the basket bed (a combination between the perfect mixing and plug-flow) and to the diminishing of the influence of inhibitory effects. In this context, the review presents the studies on the optimization of broths circulation and the applications of the bioreactor with basket bed of immobilized yeast cells for bioethanol production.
Keywords: basket bioreactors, immobilized biocatalysts, alcoholic fermentation.

BOOK REVIEW:
Coloring the Cosmetic World. Using Pigment in Decorative Cosmetic Formulations. Edwin B. Faulkner, Allured Books, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-932633-97-9

review by CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 113 - 114

2012, Issue LVIII (LXII), Fasc. 1

Preliminary Study of Decolourization by Sorption Onto Sawdust of a Real Textile Effluent

CARMEN ZAHARIA, DANIELA ŞUTEU

pages 9 - 18
Abstract
The paper presents a preliminary laboratory study of adsorption onto wood sawdust applied to decolorize a real textile effluent. The main factors tested for high efficiency of decolorization were pH, sorbent dose, temperature, and contact time. The highest treatment performance was obtained at high acidic pH (1-2), with sawdust dose of 12-40 g/L, temperature of 20-25°C, initial intermittent agitation, continuous sorption operating regime, a minimum contact time of 900 min, and was of 41.379-76.47%. Other treatment steps into the technological treatment process of tested textile wastewater can be used for increasing of treatment degrees (i.e. chemical oxidation/reduction, membrane processes, ultrafiltration, etc.).
Keywords: adsorption, decolourization, industrial textile effluent, sawdust, treatment efficiency.

Experimental Researches Regarding The Stability With Zinc Oxide Applied Onto Synthetic Textile Materials

GIANINA BROASCĂ, CHRISTINE CHAMPAGNE, DANIELA FĂRÎMĂ, MIHAI CIOCOIU, MIRELA IORGOAEA, NARCISA VRÎNCEANU

pages 19 - 28
Abstract
The garments with special destination, such as police uniform, should fulfill a series of requirements specific to utilizing domain. One of this requirement is related to the increasing of the inssurance concerning the exploitation and life time enhancement of the special clothing. For this reason an optimal solution for increasing the functional attribute of garments is mandatory. The present paper reveals the research results concerning the stability treatment consisting of ZnO powder, having as binder an acrylic copolymer, applied on 100% PES fabric, by padding method. The treatment has been performed to optimize the antimicrobial capacity providing by the police uniform during the wearing. The stability of these treatments has been tested by Zeta potential measurement. The researches target the following work proceedures: 100% PES fabric – non-treated; 100% PES fabric treated only with binder (for comparison); 100% PES fabric treated with different concentrations (1%, 3%, 5%, 7%) zinc oxide and binder; 100% PES fabric treated with binder + 1%, 3%, 5% 7% zinc oxide + methanol; 100% PES fabric treated with binder + 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% zinc oxide + methanol after 48 h consequently to treatment.
Keywords: polyester fibres, Zeta potential, zinc oxide, police uniform.

Performances of Natural Polyelectrolytes Based on Starch in Aggregation and Stabilization of Aqueous Coal-Containing Systems

CARMEN ZAHARIA

pages 29 - 39
Abstract
The paper presents some preliminary aggregation-stabilization studies of some coal-containing colloidal systems (un-oxidated and oxidated coal with H2O2) as a result of starch action as flocculation agent or coagulation aid. There were used coal dispersion samples of different turbidity, at different pH values, with or without coagulant (aluminium sulphate, 10-1-10-4 M) or flocculant (starch solution, 5-35 mg/L) doses. In these experiments were determined the relative absorbance progress of aqueous systems, but also the critical values of pH and coagulant/starch concentration for initiating aggregation of aqueous colloidal systems (coagulation/flocculation), and also those corresponding to stabilization of colloidal systems (action of starch as stabilization agent or solid protection agent).
Keywords: aggregation, colloidal coal-containing aqueous suspension, flocculation, natural polyelectrolyte, stabilization, starch.

Adsorption of Cobalt(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Green Algae – Ulva Lactuca sp.

MARIUS LUPEA, LAURA BULGARIU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 41 - 47
Abstract
The removal of cobalt(II) from aqueous solution by adsorption on marine green algae Ulva lactuca sp. was studied as a function of several experimental parameters (initial solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial metal ion concentration) at room temperature (23 ± 0.5°C). The batch system experiments carried out showed that this biosorbent was effective in removing of cobalt(II). The higher value of adsorption capacity was obtained at pH 5.0 and at 8 g×L-1 adsorbent dose. The value of 11.69 mg×g-1 obtained under these experimental conditions indicate that Ulva lactuca sp. has a good capacity of cobalt(II) adsorption, and can be effectively used as adsorbent for effluents treatment process.
Keywords: cobalt(II) ions, adsorption, Ulva lactuca sp. marine algae.

Extraction and Identification of Bioactive Compounds Using Non-Destructive Separation Techniques

ROXANA-ELENA GHIŢESCU, IOANA IGNAT, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 49 - 56
Abstract
Black currant is one of the raw materials used to obtain phenolic compounds, especially being recognized as a rich source of natural antioxidants, which can be used in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and agrochemical. This study was carried out using two mild conditions to recover natural compounds with biological activity, using ultrasound and supercritical fluid assisted extraction. Extracts were obtained varying the temperature in isobaric conditions for the supercritical method, while in the ultrasound method the temperature’s and extraction time’s influence was studied. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the polyphenolic compounds existing in the extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The obtained results showed a much higher efficiency in supercritical extraction, ensuring higher concentrations than those obtained thru ultrasonic extraction. Also the concentrations of the investigated compounds increased along with the pressure and contact time, fact which underlines these variables’ influence in the extractive process. The application of high performance liquid chromatography provides information regarding phenolic acids’ and flavonoids’ concentration. Hence it derives that both the flavonoids’ and the phenolic acids’ content in the extracts obtained is higher when using supercritical fluids, in contrast with the ultrasound method, the main influencing factor performance wise in the latter case being the extraction time.
Keywords: polyphenols, supercritical fluids, ultrasound, HPLC.

Use of Sustainable Indicators in Solid Waste Management – a review

ISABELA MARIA SIMION, MARIA EMILIANA FORTUNA, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 57 - 71
Abstract
This paper is a short analyze of indicators that are powerful instruments for identifying and evaluating optimal courses of action and supporting structured and coherent decision-making. The development of sustainable indicators sets is characterized by clarity and transparency. An indicator must be understandable, and reliable. Some characteristics that indicators have in common: relevancy; they show something about the system that you need to know; understandable, easy to understand even by people who are not experts; reliability, the information that the indicator is providing are real. Lastly, indicators are based on accessible data; the information is available or can be gathered while there is still time to act. Indicators can be powerful tools in project management systems for monitoring and evaluating project, or product outcomes and impacts. Solid waste management represents one of the major environmental problems, because these types of waste are growing in the same time with population growth and their different way of life. In scientific literature the problem of different type of waste is studied, but to manage the solid waste is needed firstly to carry out an analysis of existing problems, and to identify indicators that help to realize the management.
Keywords: environmental, indicators, solid waste.

Biogas Upgrading Using Water Scrubbing Technology

PETRONELA COZMA, WALTER WUKOVITS, ANTON FRIEDL, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 73 - 84
Abstract
Biogas is an environment friendly, clean, cheap and versatile fuel, and has a great potential for wide applications. Depending on the end of use, the quality of biogas must be upgraded to meet de desired conditions for proper applications. Various technologies have been developed to improve the quality of biogas by removal of the contaminants through upgrading. Among these methods, the absorption with water or water scrubbing is the most common technique applied in an upgrading biogas plant due to the lower capital and operational cost implied. The principle of the pressurized water wash process is based on the fact that hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are more soluble in water that methane, since these substances are physically dissolved in water under pressure. From this reason, the water scrubbing is considered an efficient method to remove CO2 and H2S, and to enrich the gas with methane. This paper reviews the efforts made to improve the quality of biogas using this technology and the results obtained. Even though biogas is increasingly upgraded for different uses, such as vehicle use, there is no much literature available on upgrading of biogas using this process, although it is a proven technology and is implemented at small and large scale.
Keywords: biogas quality standards, biogas upgrading, water scrubbing, solubility.

An Water Quality Index Mathematical Modeling of Water Samples of Rajghat, Water Supply Reservoir Sagar (M.P.) With Respect to Total Dissolved Solids: A Regression Analysis

HEMANT PATHAK, DEEPAK PATHAK, S.N. LIMAYE

pages 85 - 104
Abstract
Rajghat dam (source - Bebus River) is the one of the major resource of the water for domestic used, supplied by Municipal Corporation of Sagar city (M.P.). In the present study quality of the Rajghat dam water reaching for the domestic supply is taken for under investigations on 15 physico-chemical parameters were carried out during different seasons of the 2009–2010. The correlation and multiple regression analysis applied to the datasets indicated their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality during the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon seasons. The present work is aimed at assessing the water quality index (WQI) model for the Rajghat reservoir water of Sagar city. This has been determined by collecting water samples from selected 20 locations covered entire reservoir and subjecting the samples to a most important physico-chemical analysis for create a water quality index (WQI) model. The objective of the present work is to create a model based on computed water quality index values to assess the suitability of water for human consumption. It thus becomes an important tool for the assessment and management of water body. It has to summarize large amounts of water quality data into simple terms for reporting to management and the public in a consistent manner.
Keywords: physico-chemical parameters, water quality index, regression analysis, seasons.

Environmental Comparison of Solid Waste Management Systems: A Case Study of The Cities of Iaşi, România and Enschede, Netherlands

CRISTINA GHINEA, MĂDĂLINA PETRARU, HANS BRESSERS, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 105 - 116
Abstract
Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as much as possible, recover the valuable raw materials from any waste that is created, try to generate energy by incinerating the residual waste, and only then dump what is left”. Netherlands is today among the leading countries in terms of waste management and especially in recycling solid waste. Compared with the waste situation from Netherlands the waste management in România is far behind. Landfilling of municipal solid waste is still the most used method to disposal of waste in Romania. The solid waste management sector in România is expected to develop in the coming years. In this paper environmental impact evaluation of these two different systems was realized with GaBi4 software.
Keywords: environmental impact, life cycle assessment, municipal solid waste.

Comparative Study About Biomimetic Methods Used in Hydroxyapatite Crystals Growth on the Polymeric Surface

SIMONA ILISEI, GABRIELA CIOBANU, CONSTANTIN LUCA

pages 117 - 125
Abstract
The aims of this research are to obtain hydroxyapatite thin layers on porous polyurethane substrates using two biomimetic methods and to make comparisons between results. To produce bone-like apatite coatings on polyurethane surface, two types of solutions, such as a supersaturated calcification solution (SCS) and modified synthetic Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution were used. The images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) show that on porous polyurethane support is deposited a thin layer of hydroxyapatite. The crystals of hydroxyapatite grow under the action of SBF or SCS solutions. But, based on the results obtained, it is found that the formation of hydroxyapatite layer on a polymer substrate is more favored by the presence of SCS solution. In biomimmetic treatment with SCS solution, compared with treatment with SBF solution, it saw that apatite layer is formed on polyurethane scaffolds in less time and is more uniform and homogeneous.
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, porous polyurethane substrate, biomimmetic treatment.

The Electrochemical Behaviour in Fusayama Saliva of Five Non-Precious Ni-Based Dental Alloys With Different Composition

SORIN CLAUDIU IACOB STRUGARU

pages 127 - 136
Abstract
In this study five non-precious alloys NiCr based were utilized. From the industrial processes practice it is known that a correlation between the amount of the elements Cr and Mo and the corrosion characterization exists and is given by the indicative pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN). Based on the cyclic curves in case of the five commercial alloys maintained in Fusayama saliva, one established the type and the intensity of the corrosion process by means of the corrosion currents value. The passivation of all the samples occurred spontaneously at the open circuit potential. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were made following the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. The NiCr alloys with chromium (14-18%) contents were susceptible to localized corrosion. The NiCrMo alloy with chromium (≈ 13%) content and molybdenum (9%) content presents a dangerous breakdown but have a sufficiently negative zero corrosion potential that the difference between them is around 650 mV. The NiCrMo alloys with higher chromium (22-25%) and molybdenum (9-11%) contents had a much larger passive range in the polarization curve and were immune to pitting corrosion. Pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) of about ≈ 54 could provide the Ni-based alloy with a good pitting corrosion resistance.
Keywords: corrosion current, potentiodynamic cyclic curves, scanning electronic microscopy, pitting resistance equivalent number.

Recent Advances in the Field of Enzimatic Hydrolyses of Penicillin G Using Penicillin Acylase

ANCA-MARCELA LUPĂŞTEANU

pages 137 - 148
Abstract
The development of the semi-synthetic antibiotic field has led to extensive research regarding the production of 6-aminopenicilanic acid (6-APA), the main product resulting from the split of penicillins, compound used to obtain semi-synthetic antibiotic by subsequent condensation reactions with acil donors. The use of penicillin acylase as a biocatalyst determined „the taming” of the necessary reaction conditions to break the amidic bonds in the penicillin structure and, in addition, the reduction of side products and reaction waste.
Keywords: 6-aminopenicilanic acid, penicillin acylase, enzymatyc hydrolysis, semi-synthetic antibiotic.

Total Phenolic Index Methods Used in the Present Scientific Literature

IOANA PETRONELA TĂRĂBUŢĂ, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 149 - 156
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are the most important class of secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom. Until present day the method most used is based on the reduction of the Folin-Ciocâlteu reagent in the presence of disodium carbonate. Unfortunately, although the kinetic reaction is the same, the methods used differ in terms of reagent concentrations, sample dilution, temperature, reagent to sample ratio and the adding order of the reagents. Another variation is the standard phenolic compound and the wavelength used. The aim of the present study is to recommend one of the methods encountered which is better suited for total phenolic index determination in concentrated samples. Also increasing the efficiency in the use of reagents would make the entire process more cost effective.
Keywords: Folin-Ciocâlteu reagent, phenol, method, TPI.

Distribution of Mixing Intensity of Olive Oil Dispersions in Aerated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Broths for Stirred Bioreactors

ELENA FOLESCU

pages 157 - 170
Abstract
The circulation of aerated broths inside a stirred bioreactor is more complex than in the case of anaerated medium, due to the cumulated pneumatic and mechanical agitation. Therefore, it is very important to analyze the distribution of mixing in such systems. Furthermore, the addition of olive oil as an oxygen-vector complicates even more the hydrodynamics of these types of fermentation broths. The addition of the organic phase determine an enhancement of mixing intensity, especially for higher concentrations of biomass and for higher volumetric fraction of olive oil compared to aerated fermentation broths which doesn’t contain oxygen-vectors. The analyze of mixing distribution for olive oil dispersions in aerated Saccharomyces cerevisiae broths in a stirred bioreactor with a double Rushton impeller indicated an inhomogeneous distribution of mixing intensity into the medium, although, for certain conditions (i.e. at 200 rpm and Da between 150-450 L/h for Cx=150g/L d.w.) a relatively homogenous medium can be achieved.
Keywords: aerated broths, mixing distribution, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, olive oil, oxygen-vector.

Study Concerning Treatment of Birch Veneer With Hydroxymethylated-Epoxidated Lignin Derivatives

ADINA-MIRELA CĂPRARU, IULIAN-ANDREI GÎLCĂ, ELENA UNGUREANU, LUCIA CARMEN TRINCĂ, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 171 - 176
Abstract
The paper presents the results obtained in a study concerning the obtaining and characterization of hydroxymethyl- epoxy lignin derivatives which were tested in terms of their biocides properties in birch veneer protection. There used three types of commercial lignin’s (Protobind 1000, 2000, 3000) offered by the company Granit (Switzerland). By applying suitable conditions of synthesis, it was possible to obtain lignin derivatives using the reaction of hydroxymethylation followed by epoxydation. The resulted products were applied in the treatment of birch veneer samples. These were successively immersed in solutions containing copper ions and unmodified and modified lignins with concentration of 5% dissolved in furfuryl alcohol. The biostability of veneer samples thus treated were appreciated through their burial in soil for six months and characterized by mass losses, contact angle against water and its modification during the measurement. The obtained results show that the treatment of birch veneer with complexes of hydroxymethyl-epoxy lignin derivatives with copper offers a high stability of the substrate timber products in comparison with unmodified products.
Keywords: lignin, hydroxymethylation, epoxydation, biostability, birch veneer.

Development and Validation of an HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Diosmin and Hesperidin

ANDREIA CORCIOVĂ, LAURIAN VLASE, CONSTANTIN CIOBANU, MARIUS TURNEA

pages 177 - 185
Abstract
Diosmin and hesperidin are glycosylated flavonoids with health related properties. These compounds are involved in complex biological processes at cellular level and they are found in various pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and sensitive HPLC-DAD method for the determination of diosmin and hesperidin content in pharmaceutical tablets. An Agilent 1100 HPLC Series with a diode-array detector system was used throughout the analysis. The system is equipped with a Zorbax SB-C18 100 mm x 3.0 mm i.d., 3.5 µm column and as a mobile phase a mixture of acetic acid 0.1%/methanol (60:40, v/v) was used. At the same time, a validation study was conducted for the proposed method, in accordance with the bioanalytical method validation guidelines. The studied validation characteristics showed that the proposed method can be successfully applied to drug tablets analysis.
Keywords: HPLC-DAD, diosmin, hesperidin, flavonoids.

Electrochemical Studies on CoCrMo Alloys in Artificial Saliva and Aspirin

MANUELA ROMAŞ, DANIEL MARECI, ANNA IGUAL MUNOZ, DANIEL MIRCEA SUTIMAN

pages 187 - 194
Abstract
CoCrMo alloys, used as dental materials, were subject of electrochemical studies in order to obtain information about electrochemical behaviour of alloys in presence of artificial saliva and aspirin. The following electrochemical methods were used: open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in solutions at pH value 3 and 37ºC. Due to electrochemical data it were studied electrochemical properties of corrosion and EIS data helped to modelate an equivalent circuit (EC) for studying the nature of pasive film formed on CoCrMo alloys.
Keywords: CoCrMo alloy, aspirin, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion.

Kinetic Characterization of Some Phenoloxidases from Mushrooms

LUMINIŢA ANCA GEORGESCU, DANA IULIA MORARU, VERONICA STELUŢA MINCIOR

pages 195 - 206
Abstract
Amongst the phenoloxidases found in mushrooms, laccase and tyrosinase are two important copper enzymes, which participate to oxidative browning. Even so, they are useful as food additives, as quantitative measurement reagents and they have an interesting potential in wastewater bioremediation. The purpose of this study is to enlighten the enzymatic activity of some aqueous extracts made of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus and to analyze the kinetic parameters resulting from the activity of laccase and tyrosinaze over certain substrates. As specific substrates for tyrosinase were used L-tyrosine, L-DOPA and catechol, respectively syringaldazine and guaiacol for laccase. The data obtained by using mushroom extracts were compared with those that were found by using commercial purified enzymes. It was discovered that laccase prefers syringaldazyne as substrate and that tyrosinase oxidizes L-DOPA faster than catechol, although the kinetic parameters did not show a high affinity, but a moderate one. This fact leads us to the hypothesis that the mushrooms we have tested were treated with inhibitors in order to be commercialized.
Keywords: phenoloxidases, mushrooms, laccase, tyrosinase, enzymatic activity, kinetic parameters.

Swelling Behavior Of Some Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Based on Polyacrylamide and Starch or Modified Starch

DIANA FELICIA APOPEI, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 207 - 216
Abstract
Preparation of novel semi-interpenetrating composite hydrogels based on poly(acrylamide) as a matrix and either native potatoes starch (PS) or a polyanion, obtained by the hydrolysis of PS-g-PAN, as entrapped polymer has been studied in the paper. The composite hydrogels have been characterized by swelling behavior as a function of the cross-linking ratio and medium pH, water retention capacity, and by the retention capacity of Methylene Blue.
Keywords: potatoes starch, poly(acrylamide), semi-interpenetrating composite hydrogels, Methylene Blue.

Characterization of Several Aromatic Copolyethers with Flexible Methylene Spacer Using Thermal Methods

GABRIELA LISĂ, NICOLAE HURDUC, SILVIA ALĂZĂROAIE, NATALIA HURDUC

pages 217 - 227
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to collect information on the thermal behavior in dynamic temperature conditions of several aromatic copolyethers synthesized by interphasic transfer catalysis in liquid system. Thus, we analyzed the influence of the molar copolymerization ratio, comonomer type and rate of heating. Thermal methods such as thermogravimetric analysis, derived thermogravimetry or differential analysis were employed as investigation methods. Copolyethers enjoy good thermal stability, which is influenced by the comonomer type and molar copolymerization ratio. The degradation mechanism is radicalic and includes successive reactions.
Keywords: thermal behavior, aromatic copolyethers, degradation mechanism.

Synthesis and Characterization of Nanohydroxyapatite Powders

SIMONA ILISEI, ANA MARIA BARGAN, GABRIELA CIOBANU, CONSTANTIN LUCA

pages 229 - 234
Abstract
This paper investigates the possibility to obtain nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by precipitation method. The morphology and crystallization of the prepared samples were described by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Based on the method applied under certain conditions of synthesis nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite were obtained. For samples obtained at pH ≥ 10, the crystallite mean sizes varied from 40 to 70 nm.
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanoparticles, precipitation.

Applications of Thermogravimetric Analysis on the Study of Composition of Polyester-Wool Fabrics

LUCIA ODOCHIAN, ANCA MIHAELA MOCANU, LORELA IANCU, ADRIANA BĂICEANU, CRISTINA MARIA PĂIUŞ

pages 235 - 243
Abstract
Due to the many characteristics shown by the polyester fabrics when processed as mixtures with wool these fabrics were studied from several points of view. The composition of the polyester-wool material is determinative for the fabric properties and hence for the purpose to be used so that this feature is of a great significance. By taking these considerations into account the present paper is aimed to present a method for determining the composition of the polyester-wool textile material and that can be applied to any bi-component material consisting of a strongly hydrophilic component along with a hydrophobic or slightly hydrophilic one.
Keywords: fabrics: wool (W), polyester (PS), wool (W) + polyester (PS); thermogravimetric analysis (TG); derivative thermo-gravimetric analysis (DTG).

CAMELUŢA BELDIE in memoriam

by GHEORGHE NEMŢOI

pages 245 – 246

2012, Issue LVIII (LXII), Fasc. 2

CuCo Nanosized bimetallic particles hosted by pure and phenyl modified mesoporous MCF silicas for cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation

BRÎNDUŞA DRĂGOI, ALEXANDRU CHIRIEAC, ALINA MOSCU-CORCODEL, ADRIAN UNGUREANU, EMIL DUMITRIU

pages 9 - 24
Abstract
This work is focused on the preparation of copper and cobalt containing catalysts supported on MCF (mesocellular foams) silica and phenyl-MCF hybrid materials and their applications in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde. Silica MCF was prepared by “oil-in-water microemulsion” templating while the incorporation of the phenyl groups in the silica MCF was performed by direct-synthesis. Cu and Co containing catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation on the calcined supports. Catalysts with 5 wt % in metals and Cu:Co weight ratio = 4:1 were used in this study. The high quality of the supports and catalysts in relation to their structure, texture, size and dispersion of the metal oxides was proved by XRD and N2 physisorption. The surface chemistry of samples (i.e. the identification of the organic functions, as well as the metallic cations environments) was analysed by thermogravimetry and DR-UV-Vis-NIR. The catalytic performances were evaluated in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde in liquid phase. All catalysts were very active and highly selective to the unsaturated alcohols. Further improvement in the catalytic performances was achieved for the materials containing phenyl groups.
Keywords: copper, cobalt, MCF, phenyl, hydrogenation, cinnamaldehyde.

Romanian environmental ergonomics standards

OCTAVIAN CIOBANU, GABRIELA CIOBANU

pages 25 - 32
Abstract
Environmental Ergonomics approaches the issues of design and evaluation of human comfort, activity and health in indoor and outdoor environments. Environmental factors include thermal environments, lighting level, noise, vibration, atmospheric pressure and air quality. Paper deals with the state of art of Environmental Ergonomics in Romania approaching and making a comparative study between Romanian standards and standards of the European Committee for Standardization and of the International Standards Organization.
Keywords: comparison, Environmental Ergonomics, Romanian standards.

Advanced electrochemical oxidation process for removal of refractory contaminants from wastewater

CARMEN IONELA BRÎNZILĂ (ALEXANDRU), ROMEO CRISTIAN CIOBANU

pages 33 - 43
Abstract
This paper aims to develop a brief overview of Advanced Electrochemical Oxidation Processes (AEOPs) that will be applied to the degradation/mineralization of refractory and toxic contaminants in aqueous solution. AEOPs are based on the generation of hydroxyl radical •OH, a powerful oxidizing agent, non-selective, which reacts with organic contaminants to their complete mineralization (conversion to CO2 and inorganic ions). Anode material is a very important factor influencing the efficiency of electrochemical processes used for degradation of contaminants. Boron doped diamond (BDD) thin film anode has attracted great attention due to his important characteristics: wide potential windows, inert surface with low adsorption properties and a high corrosion stability. Adding that the concentration of hydroxyl radical generated at BDD surface is much higher than conventional anodes, with a higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal rate, makes AEOPs with BDD to be a suitable procedure for complete mineralization of organics in aqueous medium.
Keywords: wastewater, boron-doped diamond, electrochemical treatment, hydroxyl radical.

Investigation of the thermal degradation products of high density polyethylene and polypropylene using analytical techniques

MIUŢA RAFILA FILIP, TIBERIU RUSU

pages 45 - 57
Abstract
High density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) are part of the most common plastics extensively used in different fields due to their low cost and various applications: packing, toys, containers, house wares, gas pipes, automotive parts, electrical components. The thermal degradation by pyrolysis is the most suitable method for converting of these plastic polymers into fuel. In this paper the HDPE and PP were thermal degradated at 350°C. The obtained products were a mixture of hydrocarbons which contains a gas fraction, a liquid fraction and a solid residue. Yields of liquid products were 83.14% and 89.90% for thermal degradation products of HDPE and PP, respectively. The gas chromatography couplet with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques were used for the investigation of the thermal degradation products. The liquid fractions were analyzed through GC-MS technique. The GC-MS results show that the liquid fractions obtained contain a mixture of hydrocarbons with straight-chain and branched-chain of range C7…C31. All of the thermal degradation products were investigated by FT-IR technique. The FT-IR spectra indicate the specific bands of the vibration functional groups which belong to the components of all the thermal degradation products. The investigation of thermal degradation liquid products of HDPE and PP are useful because it is possible to be used as fuels.
Keywords: thermal degradation; polymer; hydrocarbons; GC-MS; FT-IR.

Lignocellulosic agro-industrial wastes as sorbents for dyes removal from aqueous media

DANIELA ŞUTEU, CARMEN ZAHARIA, MARINELA BĂDEANU

pages 59 - 67
Abstract
The article presents our results into the evaluation of adsorptive potential of some materials from the agricultural wastes, using the well-known procedure, into the optimal proposed and tested operational conditions for retaining of textile dyes of industrial effluents. The accent is pointed on the valorization of an important category of by-products and/or agro-industrial wastes together with wastewater treatment generated by the textile chemical finishing, the industry of chemical synthesis of dyes, the industry of leather processing, industry of material printing etc.
Keywords: sorption, dyes, wastewaters, lignocellulosic adsorbent.

Control and analysis of some water quality indicators of Bahlui river in Iaşi county area (spring season)

CARMEN ZAHARIA, ISABELA MARIA TESLARU

pages 69 - 79
Abstract
Some important quality indicators (i.e. pH, color, suspended solids, turbidity, fixed residues, dissolved oxygen, COD, BOD5, total hardness, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, phenolic derivates, extractible substances in organic solvents – petroleum ether, etc.) were analysed during the spring season (i.e. March-May months, 2009) in four control sections of Bahlui River – Iaşi County area (i.e. sections with known potential polluting sources around: 1- Antibiotice zone, 2- Tudor Vladimirescu zone, 3- upstream and 4- downstream Dancu urban wastewater plant). The performed results permitted the establishment of water quality classes for each analysed quality indicators, and estimation of pollution level, but also further actions for this natural water resource protection and conservation.
Keywords: analysis, Bahlui River, conservation, control section, pollution level, quality indicator, water resource.

Charmomille old issues, new approaches

MIHAELA BUDUR, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 81 - 87
Abstract
Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla - Fam. Asteraceae) is one of the oldest and most used herbs. It grows everywhere, on roadsides, fields, besides houses. In some regions of the country, are plains with chamomile. Flowers - Flores Chamomille - contain a volatile oil, blue, which due to a compound called azulene and the nature of glycoside flavones (apigenin) exhibit antispasmodic properties, anesthetics, disinfectants and anti-inflammatory. This article will review, briefly, cultivation techniques, harvesting and storage and the main constituents and organoleptic properties. Detailed in this article are its medicinal uses and methods of administration.
Keywords: matricaria chamomilla, chamazulene, chamomila flos, medical uses, essential oil.

Deuterium depleted water and spruce bark extract - bioregulators for maize and rape plants

CORNELIU TĂNASE, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 89 - 98
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of deuterium depleted water (DDW) in combination with spruce bark aqueous extract on maize and rape seedlings growth and development. Taking this into account, germination tests were carried out in the presence of distilled water (DW-control), DDW, spruce bark extract, and polyphenolic extract in combination with DW and DDW respectively. The characteristic effects of each tested treatment was assessed after ten days from the beginning of the experiment through biometrics analysis and quantitative determinations of plant biomass and by setting the total content of assimilatory pigments. The obtained results have shown that in the presence of DDW a stimulatory effect was evidenced on accumulated biomass and photoassimilatory pigments synthesis for both plants species. It was observed that the combination of polyphenolic extract with DDW stimulates germination energy and capacity for both plants being accompanied by biomass accumulation in the primary leaves with 45% over the control sample value and also, stimulating photoassimilatory pigments synthesis.
Keywords: deuterium depleted water (DDW), maize, rape, spruce bark, polyphenolic compounds.

Gas drying using “selective water sorbents” based on alumina

OANA-ROXANA HAUTĂ, MARIUS-SEBASTIAN SECULA, IOAN SOLOMON, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

pages 99 - 104
Abstract
The present paper examines the adsorption of water vapors by mesoporous alumina containing various amounts of hygroscopic salt impregnated in his pores. The mesoporous structure of alumina was studied by BET technique. The water adsorption was studied under classical industrial conditions (a temperature of 30ºC and relative humidities of 40% and 60%).
Keywords: composite adsorbent, alumina, water vapors adsorption.

Ni–Ti–Nb tapes obtained by rapid solidification technique

GYÖRGY THALMAIER, N. JUMATE, I. VIDA-SIMITI, L. BUKKOSI

pages 105 - 111
Abstract
Nickel–titanium–niobium alloys are known as promising hydrogen-selective membrane materials. They can potentially be combined with a suitable water–gas shift catalyst to form a catalytic membrane reactors, which can produce high-purity H2 and CO2 streams from coal-derived syngas at elevated temperatures. The possibilities of obtaining thin tapes by rapid solidification technique from the Nb–Ti–Ni alloy have been examined. The master alloy was prepared by arc melting using high purity Nb, Ti and Ni in a Ti-gettered argon atmosphere. The alloys were melted several times in order to improve homogeneity. The alloy ingot was induction-melted under a high-purity argon atmosphere in a quartz tube and graphite crucible injected through a nozzle onto a Cu wheel to produce rapidly solidified amorphous ribbons. Investigations were made regarding thermal stability and mechanical behavior of the obtained tapes using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests.
Keywords: nickel–titanium–niobium alloys; rapid solidification; amorphous tapes.

Synthesis and characterisation of a new class of bent-core type compounds

DRAGOŞ-FLORIN IUGANU, GHEORGHE SIMION, DAN SCUTARU

pages 113 - 118
Abstract
The synthesis and structural characterization of some new symmetric bent-core compounds which have as central core 1,3-bis-(4`-hydroxyphenylazo)benzene are reported. Compounds were prepared by esterification of the central core with a series of aliphatic carboxylic acids. 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy were used for structural characterization of these compounds.
Keywords: symmetric bent-core compounds, 1,3-bis-(4`-hydroxyphenylazo)benzene.

Ground and tap water quality assessment of Sagar city especially in terms of saturation index

HEMANT PATHAK, DEEPAK PATHAK, S.N. LIMAYE

pages 119 - 126
Abstract
The present research is aimed at assessing the saturation index for the ground/tap water of Sagar city to assess the suitability of water for human consumption. This has been determined by collecting water samples from selected 24 locations covered entire city, and subjecting the samples to a necessary chemical analysis in 3 seasons from PreMonsoon 2008 to Post Monsoon 2010 was carried out to assess suitability of ground/tap water. The results of chemical analysis have been used to determining water quality. The results obtained from Langelier Saturation index (LSI) and Ryznar saturation index (RSI) revealed that the water quality of the Sagar city needs some degree of treatment before consumption, and it also needs to become imperative to regularly monitoring the quality of water to protect it. The mean positive LSI value for the samples was 1.556, indicates over saturated and it can precipitate calcium carbonate and mean RSI value 4.546 for all the samples i.e. less than 6 it means water is scale forming. Thus it becomes necessary for the assessment and management the scale formation and corrosiveness in reference to sampling places.
Keywords: Ground/Tap water, Langelier saturation index, Ryznar saturation index.

Formation mechanism of polymer films

NICOLETA BUNDUC, MARIA-ANDREEA LUNGAN, CIPRIAN NEGOESCU, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

pages 127 - 143
Abstract
Understanding the mechanism of formation for polymer films is fundamental to the success of many industrially products such as paints, coatings, adhesives, medical devices etc. In the last decades, the environmental concerns due to emission of large amounts of volatile organic compound (VOC) have forced the coating industry to move away from traditional organic based formulations towards water based dispersions. Hence a series of new and innovating methods for film formation were developed. This review of polymer film tries to provide a general overview of the trends taken into consideration when a coating material is developed, but without providing any specific values of variables or quantities which may be a function of a polymer’s composition, molecular weight or functionality.
Keywords: film formation, latex, dispersions, deformation of particles.

New catalysts for chemoselective hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde based on Co and Cu incorporation in MgAl LDH matrix

BRÎNDUŞA DRĂGOI, ADRIAN UNGUREANU, ALEXANDRU CHIRIEAC, EMIL DUMITRIU

pages 145 - 155
Abstract
A series of Mg/Co/Cu/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with variable Co/Cu ratios but constant Mg/Al, as well as M2+/M3+ ratios, was synthesized by co-precipitation under low supersaturation with CO32– as compensating anion. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the catalysts composition, especially Co/Cu ratio, on the catalytic properties of the as-synthesized materials. According to XRD results, all the samples are well crystallized and contain only pure LDH phases while the spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and DR UV-Vis) indicated that both Co and Cu species are substituted in the brucite-like layers. The shape of the nitrogen physisorption isotherms obtained at –196°C indicates a predominantly mesoporous texture of materials. The chemoselectivity of the as-made materials were evaluated in the liquid phase hydrogenation of trans-cinnamaldehyde.
Keywords: LDH, MgCoCuAl, co-precipitation, cinnamaldehyde, hydrogenation.

Acetylacetone used as a complexing agent in ZnO precursor solution

MIHAELA POPA

pages 157 - 161
Abstract
ZnO precursor solution was prepared by using zinc acetate, ethanol and acetylacetone, as a complexing agent. The stability in time of the solution was observed. Increasing the metal concentration in the precursor solution from 0.2 to 0.4 M, a decrease of the solution stability was observed. The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of zinc acetylacetonate, prior to the precipitation of the ZnO precursor solution.
Keywords: ZnO; acetylacetone; solution stability.

Experimental study of active carbon drying in a batch fluidized bed

MIRCEA TEODOR NECHITA, STELIAN PETRESCU

pages 163 - 172
Abstract
This paper presents a study on the batch fluidized bed drying of active carbon granules with high content of moisture, using air as drying agent. The effects of the initial moisture content (80, 90, and 95%), of the drying agent flow (14, 18, 40 and 78 m3·h-1) and temperature (40, 50 and 60ºC) have been studied. The rate-determining step was established based on the shrinking-core model. It was found that not one, but two elementary steps are simultaneously rate limiting for the drying process.
Keywords: drying kinetics, evaporation, film diffusion, pore diffusion, shrinking-core model.

Analysis of the cellolignins obtained from hydrolytical conversion of vegetal materials

ADINA - ELENA PÂNZARIU, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN

pages 173 - 181
Abstract
The paper presents chemical composition of the vegetal materials obtained during the various treatment with hot demineralized water in a flowthrough mode, batch mode, under pressure (200÷400 atm), in the temperature range of 150°C÷190°C. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method has good potential to determine the structural characteristics and distribution of chemical components in vegetal materials. Using FTIR technologies, it was found a correlation between FTIR data and chemical composition of vegetal material, the ratio of peak areas of polysaccharides (Pz) to lignin (L) in cellolignin increased from 0.45 (140°C) to 0.64 (150°C) for the hydrolysis under pressure, while if the hydrolysis without pressure decreased (0.21).
Keywords: infrared spectroscopy, vegetal materials, cellolignin, hot water.

Lavender oil. Origins. Properties. Applications

ANDREIA TOPALESCU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 183 - 188
Abstract
Lavandula is a plant that undergrowth to a height of up to 50 cm with thin and woody stems, small leaves of green-gray, lilac-red and the lignified roots 2-3 cm thick. Volatile oil, distilled from fresh inflorescences of lavender and Lavandin is the main product of this plant and is widely used in perfumes and cosmetics industry. Lavender oil has a soothing and calming effect, relieves tension and otherwise helps the digestive system. Lavender oil is one of the few essential oils that can be used for all types of skin problems such as abscesses, acne, oily skin, sunburn, wounds, lice, insect bites, and stings, and is especially useful when treating a minor burn, wound.
Keywords: Lavandula, Lavander oil, therapeutic properties, lavender uses.

Kinetic modelling of the cathodic hydrogen release process in acid environments

LILIANA LAZĂR, NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU, FLORIN BANDRABUR

pages 189 - 199
Abstract
Metal materials corrosion in strong acid environments takes place according to the anodic oxidation process of the metal compensated by the cathodic process of hydrogen release. This paper treats the kinetic modelling of the cathodic process of hydrogen release in the Zn-OL37 bimetallic systems corrosion process in aggressive environments based on sulphuric and formic acid respectively. The kinetic mechanism of the process involves elementary processes of hydrogen ions transfer through the liquid phase and surface transformation. The plate model was employed as model for the metal and electrolyte contact to describe the mathematic relation considering that the corrosion takes place uniformly on the entire surface.
Keywords: corrosion, hydrogen transfer, kinetic mechanism, modelling.

BOOK REVIEW:
Hair Care Formulation for All Hair Types. Edited by Cosmetics & Toiletries Allured Books, 2011, ISBN: 978-1-932633-86-3.

review by CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 201 - 204

STELIAN PETRESCU in memoriam

by IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

pages 205 - 206

2012, Issue LVIII (LXII), Fasc. 3

Optimization of Several Process Parameters for Indigo Carmine Adsorption by Activated Carbon Using Central Composite Design

MARIUS SEBASTIAN SECULA

pages 9 - 18
Abstract
The response surface methodology was applied for modeling and optimization of the adsorption process of an acid indigoid dye from aqueous solutions on granular activated carbon (GAC). The considered independent variables were the initial pH, ranged between 3.64 and 10.36, GAC dose, ranged from 0.16 to 1.84 g·L-1, and initial dye concentration, ranged from 33 to 117 mg·L-1. A rotatable central composite design was employed in order to develop two second order polynomial models as functional relationships between adsorption capacity and color removal efficiency respectively and the independent variables.
Keywords: response surface modeling, optimization, adsorption, granular activated carbon, indigo carmine.

Influence of pH and Redox Potential on Electrochemical Treatment Efficiency in Case of Soil Pollution with Petroleum Products

IRINA ISTRATE, DIANA MARIANA COCÂRŢĂ, ADRIAN BADEA, TALIDA CÎRLIORU

pages 19 - 27
Abstract
The present paper presents the main results obtained during the developing of two different research approaches. One has been developed during a project co-funded by the European Regional Development Funds, while the second one, during a post PhD research. Both experimental researches involved the application of electrochemical treatment on petroleum product polluted soil. For the first case, artificially soil contamination with total hydrocarbons was used. In the second case, the pollution was natural and resulted during the extraction and processing of different petroleum products. The paper illustrates the correlation between the pH and ORP changes and the treatment efficiencies of the performed tests. The main conclusion of the present research is the fact that, if we have a much higher initial hydrocarbons concentration in soil, the necessary treatment time must be increased. The artificially contamination had an initial concentration of 8.33 mg/kgdw, while the natural one was 33.20 g/kgdw.
Keywords: pH, redox potential, hydrocarbons, electrochemical remediation.

Producers and Distributors Survey on Green Products in Romania

VASSILIS INGLEZAKIS, VALENTIN NEDEFF, MIRELA PANAINTE, IULIANA CARAMAN, CARMEN MURARU, MIHAI DRAM, LAURA FOCARIU, CHRISTOS VENETIS, PHILIPOS COUTSIKOS

pages 29 - 40
Abstract
The green products market in Romania is just in the beginning of its development and the concept of eco-products is quite new for Romanians with the exception of the food sector. It is also true that producers/distributors of products are not informed on the business opportunities relevant to green products. In order to raise awareness -regarding green products, the project LIFE+08/INF/RO/000507 “Promoting Green Products”, financed by the European Commission through the LIFE+ program was developed and is under implementation (2010-2013). In the framework of the project, a questionnaire has been created targeting producers/distributors. The main aim of this questionnaire was to capture the feedback of producers/distributors on green products. The questionnaire was sent by the Bacău Chamber of Commerce (partner in GREEN PRO project) to all its members and in total 155 questionnaires with useful data was collected. From the above data analysis it can be concluded that the producers/distributors are not very interested to respond to questions about green products and many of them have no a clear idea about green products and eco-labeling. The change of customers’ demand/needs and feedback was identified as the significant factor that could influence the eco-material/component/product’s development while the majority of participants to the survey expressed their desire to participate in events at home and abroad to promote eco products. Finally, the most suitable fiscal measure to promote green products is a combination between lower taxes for environmentally friendly products and increase taxes for products that harm the environment.
Keywords: green products, green labels, eco-labeling, LIFE+, Romania, market research.

Combined Chemical/Cold Plasma Treatment for Functionalization of Some Polymeric Films

CONSTANTIN LUCA, ANA-MARIA GRIGORIU, EMIL GHIOCEL IOANID, DORINA-EMILIA RUSU

pages 41 - 53
Abstract
Aiming at applying some ecological technologies for the polymeric films for food package materials, the present paper suggests the involvement of plasma treatment as a distinct stage in the support activation for the improvement of the chemical treatment effects. The functionalization agent, monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCT), bearing as guests different substances (ferulic acid, allantoin, Michler ketone) with antimicrobial or anti-UV properties, has been investigated. This study also includes a number of physical surface -sensitive methods revealing the efficiency of the high frequency cold plasma treatment, such as: scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflexion (FT-IR ATR) and Ultraviolet (UV) techniques, wetting angle.
Keywords: chemical treatment, cold plasma treatment, polymeric films, monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin.

Determination of Activated Corrosion Products Concentration in Spent Resins from Nuclear Power Plants

RUXANDRA TOMA, ILIE PRISECARU

pages 55 - 63
Abstract
This paper presents the mathematical model for the determination of activated corrosion products concentration in spent ion exchange resins from the primary heat transport purification system in a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant. Spent ion exchange resins from a nuclear power plant represent a very important issue as they need to be properly characterized for disposal in the final repository.
Keywords: CANDU 6, nuclear, radioactive waste, spent resins.

Impact Assessment of PAHs and Heavy Metals from Industrial Pollution Sources in a Central Romania Area

SILVIA NEAMŢU, ANA-MARIA REŞETAR-DEAC, CRISTINA DUMITRESCU, DIANA MARIANA COCÂRŢĂ

pages 65 - 78
Abstract
The present paper illustrates the impact of heavy metals and PAHs pollution in a Central Romania metallurgical industrial area, where authorities are trying for many years to reduce or to maintain below allowed limits heavy metals concentrations in soil. In order to develop an integrated methodology for human health risk concerning the organic pollution, also PAHs were identified. Existing contamination level was pointed out through soil samples laboratory analyses from 0 -0.2 and 0.2 -0.4 m soil layers depth. Some heavy metals concentrations exceeded the intervention thresholds for sensitive use related to the national regulation. As an unexpected result, also PAHs background contamination was identified, even that not as significant as for heavy metals: PAHs concentration in soil between 1 - 56 µg·kg-1 d.w for surface soil layer and 1 - 330 µg·kg-1 d.w for depth soil layer. Considering the synergism of both types of persistent pollutants, the potential risk for the human health and living organisms, became a concern and an important issue in this area.
Keywords: heavy metals, PAHs, pollution, intervention thresholds, sensitive use, exposure.

Fuel Consumption and CO2 Management in Petroleum Refinery

MIHAELA NEAGU, DANIELA LUMINIŢA MOVILEANU, ION ONUŢU, PAUL ROŞCA

pages 79 - 90
Abstract
The present study investigated the fuel consumption, energy distribution and CO2 emissions in a typical Romanian petroleum refinery. A way to reduce these emissions is CO2 post-combustion capture and storage (CCS) from refineries flue gases. The opportunities of CO2 capture are evaluated based on the sources’ intensity and their distribution around the site. The study is structured in five sections. Section 1 provides an overview of the product quality impact and demand evolution on the EU oil refining industry in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Section 2 describes the profile of a typical Romanian oil refinery and stationary combustions source placements in the refinery block diagram. The fossil fuels type used in the refinery and their contribution to every heating process are also discussed. Section 3 estimates the CO2 emissions according to the IPCC methodology based on the amount of each type of fuel and the default emission factors. In order to perform a suitable classification of CO2 sources, calculations of CO2 concentration in flue gases in the main combustion processes are shown in section 3. Section 4 explores the options for CO2 capture based on sources distribution, intensity and CO2 concentration in flue gases. In terms of source intensity, the CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant is feasible for CO2 capture. The FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracking) is a point source with CO2 high concentration, which is an advantage in terms of CO2 capture. The opportunity to combine a number of close smaller sources (such as catalytic reforming and hydro-treating processes) and route all these emission sources to a single CO2 capture plant seems to be a valuable option. The final conclusions reported in Section 5 showed that CCS in a Romanian petroleum refinery is technically feasible to be applied.
Keywords: fuel, refinery, CO2 management.

The Influence of Some Essential Oils of Aromatic Plants on Cell Division

VERONICA STELUŢA MINCIOR, VASILICA BARBU

pages 91 - 99
Abstract
Essential oils are mainly obtained by steam distillation of some aromatic plants in special installations. Because of their antibacterian and antifungal properties, they represent a viable option to replace chemical food additives such as preservatives or flavoring agents. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the citotoxicity and genotoxicity of basil (Ocimum basilicum), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum majorana) essential oils on some meristematic plant cells. All these measurements were accomplished in order to identify some oil concentrations low enough not to induce significant mitosis abnormalities to the tested plant tissue. In the first stage of the cytogenetic assay, the plant tissue was preserved in water up to the point when the root tips started to develop. Consequently, the meristems were immersed for 3 respectively 6 h in a micro emulsion, essential oil based and obtained through a previous ultrasonic treatment. Following the completion of exposure time, the roots were detached and fixed with Carnoy solution for 24 h. The coloring method involved aceto-carmine staining and simultaneous hydrolysis of the plant cells’ walls using HCl 1N at 60°C for 10 min. The root tips containing meristems were squeezed in carmin stain and analyzed with an optic microscope (Olympus CKN41 SF model). An important decrease of the mitotic index was shown, despite the fact that only a few cell division abnormalities were noticed at low concentrations. The results were statistically processed with the SPSS 13.0 software for Windows and the ANOVA test showed to be significant for P < 0.05.
Keywords: essential oils, meristems, cell division, abnormalities, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Thymus vulgaris.

Study Concerning the Extraction of Photosynthetic Pigments from Spinach

RAMONA MIHAELA COJOCARU, IONEL MARCEL POPA, GHEORGHE SURPǍŢEANU, ANA MARIA ROŞU, NECULAI DORU MIRON, ILEANA DENISA NISTOR

pages 101 - 109
Abstract
This study was aimed to asses the feasibility of extracting photosynthetic pigments and compares the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids obtained through different extraction methods. Changes in the levels of these compounds were also determined in the course of technological process of freezing and drying. Pigments were separated by solvent extraction using acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol and dimethylformamide. The isolation procedures investigated in this study included the method of single step extraction, Soxhlet extraction and ultra sound assisted extraction. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to evaluate the efficiency of the extraction methods and it was also used to quantitatively analyze the extracted chlorophylls and carotenoids. The optimum extraction method was established depending on the processing method applied to the raw material.
Keywords: chlorophyll, total carotene, spinach, extraction.

Environmental Assessment of Pyrolysis as Ex-Situ Thermal Treatment Applied to PAHs Contaminated Soils

CORA BULMĂU, DIANA MARIANA COCÂRŢĂ, SILVIA NEAMŢU, CRISTINA DUMITRESCU, ADRIAN BADEA

pages 111 - 121
Abstract
In the last years, decontamination of the soil polluted with PAHs gained an increasing interest in the environmental field (EEA, 2007). With this aim, the present paper describes laboratory experiments focused on pyrolysis efficiency concerning PAHs removal from crude oil-contaminated soil. Additionally, emissions from the thermal treatment were analysed in order to assess the environmental impact. Experiments were conducted for temperature ranged from 350ºC to 600ºC, using a small scale bench reactor. Tests were performed for two different types of polluted soil samples: in the first case it was about anthropogenic contamination (oil spills), while in the second case it was done artificially pollution with crude oil. The experimental results showed a significant pyrolysis process efficiency concerning PAHs removal from contaminated soils. ΣPAHs removal efficiency over 99% was gained applying the pyrolysis treatment only for temperatures ≥ than 600°C and 30 min retention time.
Keywords: decontamination, emissions, PAHs, pyrolysis, soil.

Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol Over Pt/SBA-15 Catalyst

DĂNUŢA GHIŢĂ, PAUL ROŞCA, DORIN STĂNICĂ EZEANU

pages 123 - 130
Abstract
Bio-ethanol reforming process to produce hydrogen was performed using Pt catalyst supported on mesoporous SBA-15 prepared by impregnation method. The catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over a temperature range of 300ºC to 500ºC. Bio-ethanol from renewable sources (alcohol 10%) was used as raw material for the experiment. The catalyst was prepared and characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD (SAXRD and WAXRD), XPS and TGA techniques. The results confirmed that the as obtained mesoporous support SBA-15 shows a well-ordered hexagonal array structure. On the other hand the nitrogen adsorption/desorption are type IV exhibiting a H1 hysteresis loop characteristic of large pore mesoporous materials with narrow pore size distribution. The results obtained from ethanol steam reforming process have shown that the main reaction is staged by a number of secondary reactions. The gaseous products resulting from the reaction were analysed on-line using a gas chromatograph Varian CP-3800. Previous to reaction, catalyst was reduced under flowing hydrogen at 550ºC for 6 h. The catalytic results indicate that Pt/SBA-15 mesoporous material can be used as catalyst for steam reforming bio-ethanol reaction.
Keywords: steam reforming, ethanol, Pt, SBA-15.

Study Concerning the Utilization of Cellulose Derivates as Development Support for Microorganisms

ANDREA-ELIZA FARKAS, DAN SCUTARU, DORU NECULAI MIRON, ANA-MARIA ROŞU, CARMEN ELENA ŢEBRENCU, ILEANA DENISA NISTOR

pages 131 - 140
Abstract
Cellulose is considered as a nearly inexhaustible raw material with fascinating structures and properties for the remarkable demand for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products. Each rest C6H10O5 of cellulose molecule, originated from glucose, contains three alcoholic groups OH. This is derived from the fact that cellulose can turn in triacetyl-derivates, trimethyl-derivates and in other esters and ethers. The main changes made to these polysaccharides are realized in order to obtain esters and ethers. Utilization of cellulose derivates is various. Derivates obtained through etherification such as methylcellulose is used in the preparation of construction materials and cosmetic paints; ethylcellulose is used to fabricate adhesives, paints and films; carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the preparation of detergents, food, pharmaceutical and textiles products, and the benzylcellulose is used to fabricate varnishes. Derivates resulting from esterification are used in the preparation of explosives, fuels, paper, adhesives (cellulose nitrate), textiles, cigarette filters and ultrafiltration membranes (cellulose acetate) and to obtain detergents and cosmetics (cellulose sulfate). In addition, they can be used in the preparation of fireproof materials (deoxycellulose phosphorus). The aim of this study was to obtain cellulose acetate (Cabiac et al.) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). CMC was obtained by replacing a hydroxyl proton with a carboxymethyl group. The reaction occurred between cellulose and chloroacetic acid in basic medium. CA was obtained from the reaction of cellulose and a mixture of acids (H2SO4 + CH3COOH). Both products were analyzed using Fourier Transformed InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR) and determining the degree of substitution for their characterization. FTIR analysis showed the success of reactions and the synthesis, by chemical modification, of CA and CMC. The objective pursued was to create a chemically modified macromolecule tolerable by microorganisms, in view of industrially application. Tests were performed on some microorganisms (sp. Penicillium and sp. Cladosporium) to observe their development using as substrate cellulose and cellulose derivates. Results obtained shows that the modification of the initial cellulose structure allows its use as substrate favoring the development of microorganisms.
Keywords: cellulose derivates, microorganisms, degree of substitution.

Permanent Hard Water Softening Using Different Cation Exchange Resins

BOGDAN BANDRABUR, LILIANA LAZĂR, RAMONA-ELENA TATARU-FĂRMUŞ, LAURA BULGARIU, GHEORGHE GUTT

pages 141 - 150
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative study on the behaviour of two synthetic ion-exchanger used for food water softening based on different functional groups: Purolite C100E and Pure PC200FD. Investigations on the practical sorption capacity in the softening process on calcium and magnesium binary chloride solution and natural ground water were conducted in batch mode as function of the ion exchange process’ specific experimental factors. FTIR spectra for cationic exchange resins samples before and after retention of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions were used to show conclusive evidence for ion exchange process.
Keywords: food grade water softening, ion exchange, SAC, WAC, resins.

Grape Phenolic Evolution Study of Cabernet Sauvignon During the Maturation Period in Iaşi Vineyard

ŞTEFAN TUDOSE-SANDU-VILLE, VALERIU V. COTEA, MARIUS NICULAUA, CINTIA COLIBABA

pages 151 - 159
Abstract
Red grapes contain a high quantity of phenolic compounds in skins, which are being transferred partially in wine during the maceration procedure. These are being accumulated during the maturation period and reach maximum concentrations at phenolic maturity. The present study follows the phenolic maturation evolution for the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety in Iaşi-Copou vineyard during 2009 harvest. From the mean grape samples, harvested once every five days, from start of ripening to harvest, phenolic compounds from skins have been completely extracted using methanol and hydrochloric acid; specific analysis methods to phenolic compounds have been applied to the extracts, most important being the anthocyan profile by using a HPLC method of analysis, in order to point out the optimum harvest moment and grape proficiency in future wine processing in regard to total phenolic concentration. The HPLC analysis determined and quantified the relative proportions of the following anthocyans: delphinidin-3-monoglicoside (Dp), cyanidin-3-monoglicoside (Ci), petunidin-3-monoglicoside (Pt), peonidin-3-monoglicoside (Po), malvidin-3-monoglicoside (Mv), peonidin-3-monoglicoide-acetilate (Po-a), malvidin-3-monoglicoide-acetilate (Mv-a), peonidin-3-monoglicoide-cumarilate (Po-c) and malvidin-3-monoglicoide-cumarilate (Mv-c). The obtained data was correlated with the climatic parameters variation registered during the maturation period.
Keywords: polyphenol, grapes, maturation, anthocyans.

2012, Issue LVIII (LXII), Fasc. 4

Ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction – sustainability through efficiency

ANI ALUPULUI, IOAN CĂLINESCU, VASILE LAVRIC

pages 9 - 17
Abstract
The aim of the paper is to assess the sustainability of ultrasound (UAE) and microwave (MAE) assisted extraction through an economic analysis. Our results show that the usage of these modern intensification techniques (UAE and MAE) leads to the minimization of the production costs, the maximization of the extraction efficiency yields, while significantly reduces the processing time. Microwave and ultrasonic fields were used separately to extract bioactive constituents from Stevia rebaudiana Bert. leaves (SR), Cynara scolymus leaves (CS) and Arctium lappa roots (AL). UAE and MAE need special equipment to be functional, translated into higher investment costs, and electricity to produce the ultrasonic and microwaves fields, which means rather high operating costs, as compared to the classical techniques. But, due to the significantly shorter operating times, the productivity of the former outscores the productivity of the latter methods. Both intensive extraction techniques seem to be economically promising, simple and efficient.
Keywords: ultrasound-assisted extraction (MAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), flavonoids, phenolic acids, stevioside.

Direct extraction of butanol from fermentation broth

ALEXANDRA CÂRLESCU, LENUŢA KLOETZER, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 19 - 33
Abstract
The production of butanol by fermentation, also known as the “acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation”, is one of the oldest fermentation processes used for the commercial production of a chemical. Recently, there has been a great interest in “green” butanol fermentation (biobutanol) both as a potential fuel and as a chemical feedstock. Biobutanol is not economically competitive when produced using traditional batch fermentation because of product inhibition which generates low productivities and low product concentration. In order to deal with this issue, several methods have been developed for removing the butanol from fermentation broth beyond the constraints of normal batch fermentation. Among them, liquid-liquid extraction represents an advantageous method for butanol recovery from fermentation broth, mainly due to high extraction capacity of the solvent and the high selectivity of the alcohol/water separation.
Keywords: butanol, liquid-liquid extraction, fermentation broth.

Glucose analysis in extracts of some fruits and vegetables with a high sweet degree

CLAUDIA COBZARU, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 35 - 39
Abstract
We identified and calculate the glucose content in three extracts from: apples, grapes and carrots, raw materials considered to have a high sweet degree. After FTIR analysis and coresponding calculus it has been showen that the glucose amounts are low in all samples, but slighly higher for apples compairing to other two.
Keywords: extract, glucose, apples, grapes, carrots.

Aroma compounds from tămâioasă românească wines obtained through cryomaceration

CINTIA COLIBABA, VALERIU V. COTEA, MARIA CODREANU, MARIUS NICULAUA, ŞTEFAN TUDOSE-SANDU-VILLE

pages 41 - 46
Abstract
The study has analysed wines produced from Tămâioasă românească grapes from Cotnari vineyard. The wines were obtained by using cryomaceration technology (freezing the grapes at −20ºC and their processing in this phase). The obtained wines were analysed after the second racking, through gas-chromatography coupled with MS. The extracts were obtained by using SPEs, LiChrolut EN/RP-18 cartridges. The aroma compounds were determined using the NIST 08, Wiley 08 and SZTERP spectrum library. The results showed the presence of high quantities of linalool and hotrienol, and also other compounds with a sensorial profile in cryomacerated wines.
Keywords: Tămâioasă românească, aroma compounds, cryomaceration, gas-chromatography.

Poly (ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules immobilized into chitosan microgels for controlled release of active principles

MIHAELA HOLBAN, YVES CHEVALIER, VALERIU ŞUNEL, MARCEL POPA

pages 47 - 54
Abstract
There have prepared chitosan based microgels containing PCL nanocapsules for controlled release of indomethacin. Microgels were obtained by ionic crosslinking of polysaccharide in W/O emulsion and polyester based nanosuspension by nanoprecipitation. Nanocapsules stability, size and zeta potential as well as particles morphology were evaluated. The incorporation of indomethacin into PCL nanocapsules proved to retard and sustain the in vitro release, as compared to incorporation into chitosan microgels.
Keywords: poly(ε-caprolactone), nanocapsules, chitosan, microgels, controlled release.

Integrated rural tourism in regional marketing

ISTVÁN RÁDULY, LENKE RÁDULY

pages 55 - 62
Abstract
Over recent years, the philosophy and methods of marketing have been extended to encompass a diverse range of activities, one example of which is the marketing of regions or localities. Territorial or regional marketing is especially important for rural tourism, where individual attractions are too small and too widely dispersed to reach a critical mass sufficient to attract guests. This fragmentation is accompanied by low added value and underdeveloped services - which further restricts the inherent possibilities. This paper argues that an integrated approach to rural tourism is needed, and that its development must be carried out in cooperation with agricultural and local government interests, both of which could benefit from the increased economic activity, and both of which contribute to the attraction of a given locale or area. This integrated approach encourages better land management and the conservation of the rural cultural heritage. Financing can be made possible by utilizing the resources of LEADER+, an EU community initiative whose philosophy will be integrated into the framework of a reformed Common Agricultural Policy during the 2007-2013 programming period.
Keywords: tourism, ecological function, rural development, cultural landscape.

Preparation of natural polymers based microcapsules by double crosslinking in double emulsion

MIHAELA NICOLETA HOLBAN, CĂTĂLINA ANIŞOARA PEPTU, ANCA NICULINA JĂTARIU (CADINOIU), MARCEL POPA, VALERIU ŞUNEL

pages 63 - 69
Abstract
The aim of the paper was the preparation and characterization chitosan and gelatin based microcapsules, prepared by double crosslinking (ionic and covalent) of polymers in an O/W/O double emulsion. The varying ionic crosslinker/ polymer molar ratio influenced particle size, morphology, swelling degree and their capacity to release hydrophilic model molecules.
Keywords: microcapsules, chitosan, gelatin, double crosslinking, O/W/O emulsion, drug release.

The simulation for determination of optimal reflux number using planovski method

TIBERIU-MIHAI STURZU, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ

pages 71 - 77
Abstract
This paper presents an algorithm and a computer program for the simulation of optimal reflux number determination using Planovski method. The program obviously brings up-to-date the method that was abandoned due to a high quantity of work that a computer can do now in only a few seconds.
Keywords: optimal reflux, Planovski method, fractionation columns.

Effect of vegetable and animal fats on oxygen mass transfer in stirred bioreactors

ELENA FOLESCU

pages 79 - 89
Abstract
The biological treatment of wastewaters (for example from food industry) is, nowadays, one of the most important biotechnological processes. Among these “green technologies”, the use of aerobic microorganisms as degraders of the pollutants is very often utilised. Hence, oxygen mass transfer is a key parameter involved in the design and operation of the mixing–sparging bioreactors used, and it can be analyzed by means of the oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa). In the wastewaters of food industry, oils, vegetable or animal, represents a great part of the overall pollutants. In this study, was evaluated the possible use of these contaminants both as oxygen-vectors and as nutrients in the bioremediation process. So, the influence of a second liquid phase (from wastewaters) with higher oxygen affinity (vegetable oils and lard) on kLa in a submerged aerated 4L stirred bioreactor was recorded and the influence of the following parameters on the oxygen transfer rate was evaluated: the volumetric fraction of the organic phase, the rotational speed of the impeller and the aeration flow rate.
Keywords: lard, oxygen mass transfer, oxygen-vector, stirred bioreactor, wastewater treatment, vegetable oil.

Statistical methods – common denominator in scientific research

MARIANA ENACHE, CRISTINA DASCĂLU, GABRIELA APOSTOLESCU, BEATRICE IOAN

pages 91 - 101
Abstract
Common knowledge in the sense of the word, define empirically on the direct experience of each of us, in a certain physico -chemical space, social, cultural, in a certain time. Scientific knowledge contributes to determining the nature of the phenomena and of modes of manifestation of the laws that govern this area. To do this, knowing the research utilizes a varied instrumentation, which led to the development of a research methodology. Scientific reasoning has to be adapted to the scope in which to do research (technical, biological, medical, teaching, etc.) and according to a specific plan for a specific kind of scientific thinking. We carried out a study of the esk research, using sources of information with the theme scientific research, statistics analysis used in different fields of research. The importance of statistical methods derives from the fact that they constitute the only means sometimes subjective data quantifying, measuring and analysing them after the rigors of science and especially of generalizing the findings to the entire population from which the batch analysed using rules of mathematical induction. Considering the importance of objectives is evident that the design and development of a statistical study should be made very carefully, selecting the most appropriate methods of handling and analysing data - providing guarantee the proper conclusions. Interdisciplinary approach and use customized statistical methods allow researchers studying subjects with medical implications reach closer to scientific truth derived from the real data collected and analysed. Can benefit from such treatments all medical fields, clinical, clinical or epidemiology and public health, all in support of health, quality of life.
Keywords: scientific research, statistical analysis, descriptive study, analytical study, interdisciplinary.

Studies of solutions derived from used catalysts based on vanadium pentoxide

DANIEL SUTIMAN, MIHAELA VIZITIU, DANIEL MARECI, NICOLAE FOCA

pages 103 - 114
Abstract
In this paper, some results regarding the behavior of used catalysts based on vanadium penta-oxide, in aqueous solution are presented. The studied solutions are derived from the reaction between the used catalyst and distilled water in ratio 1:2. After 48 h of reaction, the solution was filtered in order to separate the insoluble components. The resulted filtered solutions contain the soluble components from the waste catalyst, the ions: Fe2+, Fe3+, V3+, VO22+. These solutions were submitted to other processes such as: reaction in atmospheric air at 20°C; heating; oxidizing with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite. The variation of pH and the conductivity values of the solutions in some reaction steps were also studied. The concentration of the ions Fe3+ and V5+ was determined by spectroscopic methods. Concentration of ion was determined gravimetrically. The main purpose of the study was the separation of ions Fe3+ and V5+ and also the neutralization of the solutions derived from the waste catalysts.
Keywords: wasted catalysts; mixed oxide; spectroscopic and gravimetric measurements; conductivity; neutralizing process.

2011, Issue LVII (LXI), Fasc. 1

Adsorption Potential and Kinetic of Processes of Hypercrosslinked Polymeric Resins and Activated Carbon for Toluene Vapors

MARILENA ADELA BUBURUZAN, CEZAR CATRINESCU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 11 - 23
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of a new type of non-functionalized hyper-cross-linked polymers Hypersol Macronet, MN 202 and MN 250 for removing of toluene vapors from saturated atmosphere. The experiments were performed comparatively with the adsorption of toluene vapors onto a granular activated carbon, AC 20. The experiments were performed to determine also loading rates of toluene onto adsorbents. The results shows that the adsorption capacity, q, [mg/g], for toluene vapors from a saturated atmosphere are much greater for MN 250 and MN 202 polymers than thus for AC 20 (479, 330 and respectively 253 mg/g). Analyses of the rates data with three theoretical models (pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order reaction models and the Elovich model) were used to describe the toluene adsorption kinetics. Adsorption rate constants were determined by graphical analysis of the proposed models. The study showed that adsorption systems followed a pseudo-second-order reaction model provides an acceptable description of the adsorption process.
Keywords: adsorption, toluene, VOCs, hypercrosslinked polymers, kinetics.

Corelations Between Recovered Paper Quality and Collection Methods

ALINA IOSIP, ELENA BOBU

pages 25 - 41
Abstract
In modern times when environmental issues have taken a considerable extent, has become imperative necessary recovering and recycling of raw materials used. Replacing virgin fiber with recycled fibers proved necessary for European paper industry which has been and will be a model of sustainability. Proof of this are the statistics compiled by organizations such as CEPI (Confederation of European Paper Industries), ERPA (European Recovered Paper Association), BIR (Bureau of International of Recycling), CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and INGEDE (International Association of Deinking Industry) showing that the importance of recovered paper as a raw material in the paper industry has increased dramatically in the last years, reaching in our days to represent half of all fibers used in paper and board production. An important role in recycling is attributed to the population which becomes aware of the need for recovery with significant benefits both economically and environmentally as well. Considering that use of recovered paper to paper and board manufacturing is known for a long time, and with increasing production of paper products has increased the amount of recovered paper, to efficiently process and use, it is absolutely necessary to know the origin source, to determine the nature and content of contaminants, in a few words to follow changes on quality. Quality thus becomes one of the most important criteria for paper products recycling, a decisive factor influenced by the collection and sorting methods used. Taking into account these basic ideas, this paper highlights the main correlations between quality and recovered paper collection methods, focusing on: the importance of paper and board recycling, main grades and sources of recovered paper respectively the influence of different types of collection systems on recovered paper quality.
Keywords: collection, quality, recovered paper, recycling.

Influence of Aqueous Extract from the Bark of Picea Abies on Development of a Yeast Species Rhodotorula Spp.

ANCA-ROXANA HAINAL, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 43 - 51
Abstract
Bark of Picea abies is a residue from the forest industry with strong negative effects on the environment. The aqueous extract of this raw material contain valuable polyphenolic compounds which can be used as carbon source the red yeast. For this purpose, we tested the effect of different aqueous extracts of spruce bark with various concentrations in polyphenolic compounds on the development of yeast strains of Rhodotorula spp. The experiments followed the evolution of wet biomass yield and compounds with biological activity produced by this yeast. There were also estimated the consumption of polyphenols during the fermentative process. The experiments also concluded that, depending on the concentration of polyphenols, different results are registered in the biomass yield and pigments carotenoids, which are correlated with the possibility of metabolism of carbon source.
Keywords: Rhodotorula spp., spruce bark, polyphenols, β-carotene.

Rheological Modifiers of Natural Origins Used in Cosmetic Formulations

ANDREI ROŞU, MARICEL DANU, GINA AMĂRIOAREI, ALINA NANU, CONSTANŢA IBĂNESCU, MARIA LUNGU

pages 53 - 63
Abstract
Rheology is an important aspect of personal care and cosmetic formulations, and can influence the overall consumer appeal of a product. Rheology impacts a product’s shelf appeal via suspension, and influences a product’s spray pattern via viscosity control. It can also create a different type skin feel and can even take shape in the form of gels. This paper presents the rheological properties of some rheological modifiers of natural origins used in cosmetics and personal care products, and highlights how these features control the stability and sensory attributes of the products. There are a lot of aspects to consider when selecting a rheology modifier and therefore requires a good knowledge of their ability to induce desired properties of a cosmetic product, according to its destination. The current trend of using natural ingredients in cosmetic formulations also refers to the rheological additives.
Keywords: rheological modifiers, oscillatory shearing regime, modulus of elasticity, dynamic viscosity, temperature curve.

Evaluation of the Sorption Process for Acid Orange 7 and Erythrosine B in Soil Using Various Kinetic Models

CAMELIA SMARANDA, LAURA CARMEN APOSTOL, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 65 - 78
Abstract
Kinetic studies are of great concern for understanding the processes and parameters involved in the sorption of pollutants by soils. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were performed to study the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (C.I. 15510; M =350.32 g.mol-1) and Erythrosine B (C.I. 45430; M = 879.86 g.mol-1) dyes from aqueous solution using soil from Iaşi area. The operating variables studied were initial pollutants concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage. Kinetic analysis of the different models has been carried out in order to asses which model provides the best fit predicted data with experimental results. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to fit the experimental data (R2 > 0.99) and was able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the process period and for the all range of studied concentration.
Keywords: Acid Orange 7, Erythrosine B, dyes, kinetic models, sorption, soil.

Preliminary Study Concerning the Anaerobic Digestion of Food Industrial Wastes

DANIELA ŞUTEU, ALEXANDRA CRISTINA BLAGA, MARINELA BĂDEANU

pages 79 - 85
Abstract
Biotechnologies applied to treat biodegradable waste (aerobic and anaerobic digestion) have the great advantage that reduces the volume of wastes, producing in exchange two extremely useful products: biogas and compost. These applications of biotechnology in environmental protection represent examples of useful recovery that can be included in the trend categories developed in the European Union to obtain new sources of energy, replace of organic chemicals with green products, to improve soil performance without negative impact on flora and fauna.
Keywords: anaerobic digestion, food industrial wastes, biodegradable wastes, biotechnologies, biogas.

Municipal Solid Waste Management - Environmental Assessment from Life Cycle Perspective

CRISTINA GHINEA, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 87 - 95
Abstract
Decision support tool based on life cycle assessment - LCA-IWM Assessment Tool was applied for modelling solid waste management at municipality level. Four scenarios were developed in order to find the best solution for waste management in future for Iaşi city and for testing the possibility of the LCA-IWM Assessment Tool to evaluate them. Establishing of the alternative scenarios to the current system of waste management in the city of Iaşi was done taking into account the estimated amount of waste that will be generated for the year of assessment. The scenarios were evaluated in two ways depending on implementation planning of separate collection of solid waste. The collection targets to be achieved in the tenth year since the implementation of separate collection can be either according to the “optimal values” or “target values”. The study analyses possible environmental impacts produced by the treatment, disposal methods of municipal solid waste and potential improvements of collection.
Keywords: assessment tool, life cycle, separate collection, waste management.

Contact Model Influence on The Kinetics of Convective Drying Process of α-Al2O3 Catalytic Support

LILIANA LAZĂR, MARCEL VRÂNCEANU, ION BALASANIAN, STELIAN PETRESCU

pages 97 - 108
Abstract
The second part of an experimental research regarding the kinetics of the process of convective drying of α-Al2O3 porous granules, manufactured by tabletting is presented in this work. These granules are used as support for catalysts synthesis by method of impregnation without interaction. The convective drying process was conducted in fixed bed by circulating the drying agent through the bed. The drying curves and the drying rate curves were obtained by using the experimental data at a drying agent rate of 2.52 m/s, and temperatures ranged between 313 and 343 K. The efficiency of contact model on the kinetics of convective drying of α-Al2O3 granules used as catalytic support was established based on the comparative study of experimental results obtained by using two contact models between the drying agent and the wet material: fixed bed with drying agent circulating through the bed (I) and fixed bed with drying agent circulating at the bed surface (II). It has been shown that the contact model (I) leads to lower times of drying than the contact model (II), and is favourable by drying temperature point of view.
Keywords: kinetics, contact model, convective drying, catalytic support.

Preliminary Study of Orange 16 Dye Sorption from Aqueous Solutions onto Industrial Lignin

CARMEN ZAHARIA, DANIELA ŞUTEU

pages 109 - 117
Abstract
Sorption studies into static regime were carried out for the retention of Orange 16 dye onto industrial lignin powder from aqueous solutions. The influence of some variables and operational conditions were studied (i.e. stirring regime, temperature, pH, initial dye concentration, sorbent dose, operation time). The obtained results of Orange 16 dye sorption onto industrial lignin indicate the efficient possibility to use this sorbent for dyes removal and decolorization of textile effluents.
Keywords: industrial lignin powder, Orange 16 dye, sorption.

Photophysical Properties of Some Oligomers with Isoelectronic Arylenevinylene and Aryleneimine Structures and Triphenylamine or Carbazole Moieties

TEOFILIA IVAN, LOREDANA VĂCĂREANU, MIRCEA GRIGORAŞ

pages 119 - 131
Abstract
Nine oligomers containing triphenylamine and carbazole groups and arylenevinylene, imine and azine structure, have been synthesized by polycondensation reactions between aromatic aldehydes and bisphosphonate derivatives, diamines or hydrazine. These oligomers are used as models for study of conducting polymers since they have a well defined molecular structure, can be highly purified using common methods known in organic chemistry and processed as thin films by vacuum evaporation, dip or spin coating. In the same time, they preserve all the properties and potential applications of the corresponding polymers. The structural characterization of the synthesized arylamine oligomers was performed using usual spectroscopic methods such as 1H RMN, IR spectroscopy and the photophysical properties were analyzed by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy.
Keywords: arylenevinylene; aryleneimine; azine; triphenylamine and carbazole oligomers; photophysical properties.

Transition Towards a Sustainable Economy Based on Industrial Ecology Principles: Romanian Case Study

MĂDĂLINA PETRARU, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 133 - 145
Abstract
The awareness on the impact of human activities and the support capacity of natural capital was gradually set in Romania during the 90’s of the past century. However, at that time, this concept was unfortunately spread only within few academic and intellectual groups, the impact on political decision-makers being also insignificant. The policy documents and measures adopted after Romania became an EU member, such as the National Development Plan, National Strategic Reference Framework, Report on the Millennium Development Goals, were relevant for the implementation of the objectives and principles of sustainable development. These were necessary because of the changes carried-out in the industrial systems of Romania that revealed a steadily decline in different branches as, for example, manufacturing of steel, chemicals and also in machine production and which have been also accompanied by a large increase of unemployment. This paper considers that sustainable development assumes to integrate the social, economic and environmental aspects in industry, aiming at maximizing the well being of the present without compromising the needs of the next generation. A new approach for environmental analysis, known as industrial ecology, or “the science of sustainability”, is applied to measure the problems encountered during the transition towards a sustainable economy. Methods that should assist the corporations and organizations in reconfiguring industrial activities in order to conserve the natural resources and to reduce pollution are assessed in relation with Romanian context. The role of industrial ecology in transition towards sustainable development has been assessed considering the Romanian case study.
Keywords: biological ecosystem, industrial systems, Romania, sustainable development.

Influence of pH on Cr(VI) Reduction and Removal by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

RALUCA-MARIA HLIHOR, MARIANA DIACONU, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 147 - 153
Abstract
S. cerevisiae yeast is widely used in the food and beverage industry and still represents a concerned biomaterial in biosorption studies because its unique characteristics in comparison with other microorganisms for metal removal. In this study, the effect of pH on Cr(VI) reduction and removal by dead biomass of S. cerevisiae was investigated in the pH range of 1-4 and 5 g/L biosorbent at room temperature of 25±2°C. The results showed that Cr(VI) was completely removed from aqueous solution and Cr(III) which was not initially present, appeared in the aqueous solution and increased in proportion to the Cr(VI) depletion. From a practical viewpoint, the abundant and inexpensive dead yeast biomass has potential application in the reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic Cr(III).
Keywords: biosorption, chromium, pH.

Influence of the Topology and the Surface Chemistry on the Catalytic Properties of Mesoporous Silicas Supported CuNi Catalysts

BRÎNDUŞA DRĂGOI, ALEXANDRU CHIRIEAC, ADRIAN UNGUREANU, EMIL DUMITRIU

pages 155 - 169
Abstract
Inorganic SBA-15 and MCF (mesocellular foams) as well as their organic-inorganic hybrids were used as supports for Cu and Ni metals to obtain redox catalysts for the chemoselective hydrogenation of cinnamldehyde inliquid phase. The silicas supported CuNi catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. Catalysts with 5 wt % in metals and Cu:Ni mass ratio = 1:1 were used in this study. The hybrid materials were synthesized by direct synthesis based on the co-condensation of the tetraethylorthosilicate with different organosilanes (phenyltrimetoxysilane (Ph), propyltrimethoxysilane (Pr) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (HS)) in order to control the hydrophobicity of the support (the hybrid materials of MCF topology obtained by direct synthesis are not reported in the literature up to now). This feature is very important because have a direct consequence on the oxide/metal particle size and dispersion on the support surface and therefore on the catalytic behavior of the supported catalyst. XRD at low angle and nitrogen physisorption revealed the formation of the specific mesostructure for each kind of material, SBA-15 and MCF, respectively while XRD at high angle of the calcined samples showed the characteristic phases of NiO and CuO. Moreover, the functionalization of SBA-15 and MCF with organic groups determined better distribution of the oxides particles in comparison to the purely siliceous supports. These results are in accord to the catalytic tests which showed that the catalysts obtained by impregnation of hydrophobized supports are more active and selective in comparison to the unfunctionalized ones. Also, it was observed that a MCF topology led to more active catalysts in comparison to the SBA-15 topology.
Keywords: CuNi, SBA-15, MCF, organic-inorganic hybrids, hydrogenation, cinnamaldehyde.

A New Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of 4-Hydroxybenzyl Alcohol in 2-Isopropoxy Ethanol Solution

GABRIELA PEŞTE, NELA BIBIRE, RODICA DIACONESCU, CORNELIU ONISCU

pages 171 - 178
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a method for the HPLC-UV determination of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in 2-isopropoxy ethanol solution. The proposed HPLC method uses a Zorbax Extend C18 column, at 30°C column temperature. The mobile phase consisted of 40% acetonitrile and 60% acid acetic 0.2% solution, at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The analyte detection was an UV detection at λ = 225±4 nm, with reference λ = 360±8 nm. The described method was linear over a range of 0.5-100 mg/mL, for 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol. The accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated at a three concentration levels in the range of 1.5-80 mg/mL. The assay has proven to be simple and rapid, suitable to determine the 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol concentration in 2-isopropoxy ethanol solution. Also, the method can be useful in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals products obtaining (ex.: the first step in the industrial manufacturing of bisoprolol fumarate, an important beta-blocker agent, is the syntesis of 4-[(2-isopropoxyethoxi)methyl]phenol by etherification reaction of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol with 2-isopropoxy ethanol) (Ramakrishnan et al. 2005).
Keywords: 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HPLC, analytical method validation.

2011, Issue LVII (LXI), Fasc. 2

Challenge of Using Natural Polyphenolic Extracts in Bioremediation

ALINA STÎNGU, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 11 - 19
Abstract
Different vegetal raw material such as spruce bark, chestnuts shell and Asclepias syriaca plant provide a considerably source of natural bioactive compounds, which can be properly used in several directions such as: plant growth regulators, cosmetics, pigmentation, foods additives, and bioremediation. Aqueous extracts obtained from the vegetal raw materials mentioned above were analyzed in germination test to evaluate the influence on cadmium bioaccumulation in Brassica napus plant. It was observed that the extracts modulated Brassica napus plant growth and development, pigments assimilation and cadmium bioaccumulation which depends on metal ion concentration (5, 12.5, 25 mg/L) and polyphenolic extracts nature determined by vegetal raw material and total polyphenolic content (130, 122, 114 mg/L related to gallic acid).
Keywords: rape plant, spruce bark, chestnuts shell, Asclepias syriaca, cadmium.

Study on the Effect of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles on Dyes Biodegradation

LAURA CARMEN APOSTOL, LUCIANA PEREIRA, RAQUEL PEREIRA, M. MADALENA ALVES, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 21 - 28
Abstract
In this study the biodecolorisation of two dyes, a xanthene dye, Erythrosine B (Ery B) and an azo dye, Reactive Red 120 (RR120), was investigated under batch anaerobic conditions by using non-acclimated anaerobic granular sludge. The effect of ferromagnetic nanoparticle (FN) (as adsorbent or mediator) on dyes removal was experienced.
Keywords: anaerobic biodegradation, ferromagnetic nanoparticle, xanthenes dyes, azo dyes.

Landfill Leachate Treatement in Aerated Lagoons Using Active Sludge

CORNELIU POHONŢU, IGOR CREŢESCU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 29 - 36
Abstract
The present paper presents a biological, efficient and low cost method for landfill leachate treatment. This method consists in the biodegradation of organic compounds present in leachate using aerobic microorganisms from activated sludge. At industrial scale, the process takes place in basins named aerated lagoons. At laboratory scale, the process took place in artificial aerated bioreactors, obtaining after seven days a efficiency of 93% for color removal and 90% for organic compounds mineralization.
Keywords: landfill leachate, treatment, active sludge.

Environmental Impact of Recovered Paper Quality in Packaging Paper Manufacturing

ALINA IOSIP, ELENA BOBU

pages 37 - 50
Abstract
Quality is the major pre-requisite for extending the use of recovered paper (RP) as a raw material in paper industry, being a decisive factor for the sustainability of the recycling process. RP quality is defined mainly by unusable material content (contaminants) and paper grades entering the composition. Recent statistics show a quality decreasing trend, especially for recovered paper resulting from household collection, which could be reversed by consistent improvement in sorting technology. This study is aiming to evaluate the effects of RP quality on environmental impact in packaging paper manufacturing. The concept is based on sorting simulation in order to obtain different qualities of recovered paper entering in paper mill. A batch of recovered paper with the lowest contamination (4%) was obtained by manual sorting and starting from this, other three RP batches (6, 8 and 10%) were prepared by subsequent contamination with liquid packages. Environmental impact assessment in all the four simulated cases was performed using LCA methodology, following all its components stages: goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, environmental impact and interpretation. Main part of the article is dedicated to the interpretation phase, where the impact categories are described in detail and variations of direct emissions that affect each category are analyzed by for their relative contributions. The results of this analysis confirmed that recovered paper quality affects the environment mainly by energy consumption and solid waste generation in different steps of papermaking technology.
Keywords: recovered paper, sorting, contamination, environmental impact, life cycle assessment.

Studies Upon the Seeds Germination, Roots Elongation Under Conditions of Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals

PAULA COJOCARU, ANDRZEJ BIALOWIEC, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 51 - 58
Abstract
The paper present the importance of using Phytotoxkit tests to determining the maximum dose of pollutant that do not cause a negative effect on plants from germination and seedling stage. The advantages of using these tests and in particular the possibility of using many types of seeds and pollutants were pointed out. We studied the toxicity of Zinc (Zn) upon seed germination and root elongation of rape (Brassica napus) using a reference OECD soil for these types of tests. The concentration of Zn solution at 100% was 6000 mg/kg d.w. Zinc solutions were applied in different concentrations from 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% to 100% and tap water was used as control (0%) and diluent. After 3 days of incubation in the dark at 25 ± 1°C the inhibition rate of root elongation for each seed was determined using for measurement ImageTools3.0. software.
Keywords: phytotoxicity, root elongation, germination.

Alkaline Pulping of Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Stalks in Sulfate and Soda-AQ Processes

BOGDAN MARIAN TOFANICA, DAN GAVRILESCU

pages 59 - 68
Abstract
Rapeseed stalks (Brassica napus) have been investigated as a suitable source of cellulosic fibers for pulping in different alkaline pulping methods. Delignification was carried out by sulphate and soda-anthraquinone pulping under varying conditions. The influence of active alkali and cooking temperature on the fibers yield, screening rejects, and lignin content of pulp was studied. Time to achieve maximum temperature, cooking time at maximum temperature and the solid-to-liquid ratios were kept constant in all the experiments. Results indicated that active alkali was the most important parameter, temperature having a minor effect on pulp yield and pulp residual lignin content. The total pulp yields and kappa number was decreased with increasing the alkali charge ratio and cooking temperature, while in the same conditions, fiber yield slightly increased till there were no rejected materials. It was found that kappa number values in soda-anthraquinone pulp samples were lower than sulphate pulps at similar pulping condition. It is concluded that the rapeseed stalk have the potential for the purpose of being used for obtaining cellulosic pulp.
Keywords: rapeseed stalks, nonwood, cellulose, pulp.

Removal of 4-Chlorophenol from Wastewater Using Ultrasonication Coupled with Ultrafiltration

DANIELA CĂILEAN, CARMEN TEODOSIU

pages 69 - 84
Abstract
Priority organic pollutants represent a category of pollutants, which have a significant impact on the environment, especially in case of the aquatic component. Their removal from wastewaters before discharge is one of the concerns because of their persistence and toxicity. This study considers an integrated process which comprises 2 processes: ultrasonication and ultrafiltration for the removal of priority organic pollutants such as para-chlorophenol (4CP) from wastewater. The objectives of the study were to investigate the efficiency of the ultrafiltration process on an effluent with an initial concentration of 75 mg/L 4CP, which has been previously subjected to a homogenuous Sono-Fenton oxidation process, in terms of phenol removal efficiencies and to analyze the influence of the ultrafiltration parameters on the effluent quality such as: time, pressure, operating mode, membrane material, washing procedures).
Keywords: para-chlorophenol, ultrasonication, ultrafiltration, wastewater.

Influence of Process Conditions on Reactive Extraction of Carboxylic Acids Obtained by Succinic Fermentation

LENUŢA KLOETZER, ROXANA ROTARU, ANCA IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 85 - 97
Abstract
Separation of formic, acetic and succinic acids from fermentation broth with A. succinogenes by reactive extraction showed that it is possible to extract formic and acetic acid, while succinic acid remains in the raffinate. Reactive extraction of acetic, formic and succinic acids from mixture with tri-n-octylamine dissolved in three different solvents was performed. The extraction process was analyzed by means of the extraction degree and distribution coefficient. In order to establish the optimal conditions for reactive extraction of succinic, formic and acetic acids the influence of pH of aqueous phase and the extractant concentration in the organic phase was analyzed. Indifferent of the extracted acid, the pH of the aqueous solution has a significant influence on separation efficiency this being reduced by increasing the pH. The highest extraction efficiency was obtained when using dichloromethane, and in the considered series of acids, the highest extraction degree was obtained for formic acid, followed by acetic and succinic acid.
Keywords: reactive extraction, succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, tri-n-octylamine.

Influence of Cations on Nitrate Removal Using Purolite Resins

ANCA CEICĂ, LAURA BULGARIU, LILIANA LAZĂR, IGOR CREŢESCU, ION BALASANIAN

pages 99 - 107
Abstract
In this paper, the influence of the nature of cations (Na+, NH4+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) on the nitrate removal efficiency using three anion exchange resin: two non-selective anion exchange resin Purolite A-100 and Purolite A-847 and a selective resin Purolite A-520E, was investigated. The experiments were performed in aqueous solutions, in a concentration range between 24.80 and 372.02 mg NO3- L-1, at room temperature (19°C), by batch technique. The obtained results have shows that the nature of cations has an insignificant influence on nitrate removal efficiency in case of A-100 resin, while in case of A-520 E and A-847 resins, some differences appears and these are more evident at high nitrate concentrations. In order to underline these observations the experimental data were fitted using Langmuir isotherm model, and isotherms parameters were calculated.
Keywords: anionic resins, influence of cations, nitrates removal, ion exchange.

Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenols from Spruce Wood Bark

IOANA IGNAT, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 117 - 125
Abstract
Polyphenolic compounds are well known for their valuable properties which allow using them in animal and vegetal systems. Polyphenols are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in woody species, including softwood. The concentration of secondary metabolites in different parts of plants is not the same; in general, higher amounts of these bioactive compounds occurring in bark, heartwood, roots, branch bases and wound tissues. The aim of this paper was to investigate the bark of Picea abies as a potential source of phenolic compounds. The extraction of polyphenols was performed using different organic solvents followed by basic hydrolysis. After total content of polyphenols determination, high performance liquid chromatography procedure was used to assess the phenolic compounds in spruce bark extracts. The obtained results allow us to compare the efficiency of extraction agents from yield and individual compounds separation point of view.
Keywords: polyphenols, spruce bark, extraction, characterization.

Grey Water Footprint Assessment of the Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Prut-Bârlad Catchment

SIMONA-ANDREEA ENE, CARMEN TEODOSIU

pages 127 - 143
Abstract
Freshwater availability degradation in terms of quantity and quality became a major issue all around the world. In many cases, similar water problems are produced due to water consumption and pollution in humankind's activities. The water footprint concept is considered to be an indicator that gives information about the direct and indirect water use of products and services, taking into account water pollutions as well. Water footprint assessment is evaluating those human activities that influence the quantity or quality of freshwater within a catchment or river basin. Grey water footprint considers the volume of water required for the waste assimilation, quantified as the required volume of water to dilute pollutants in such a way that the quality of the ambient water stands above agreed national water quality standards. This paper presents an assessment of grey water footprint of the wastewater treatment plants based on the effluent concentration of important pollution indicators (BOD, COD, ammonia, phenols and detergents) measured on a monthly basis. 22 wastewater treatment facilities were assessed for the 2006-2007 period in the Prut-Bârlad catchment.
Keywords: grey water footprint, wastewater treatment plant, water quality.

Behavior Characterization of Apalight as an Ingredient in Cosmetic Formulations

GINA AMĂRIOAREI (IFTIMIE), ANDREI ROŞU

pages 145 - 152
Abstract
Apalight its an new cosmetic ingredient consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) that is a natural mineral found in nature in the form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), or Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to emphasize the two consisting entities of crystallized form. It was studied the dispersion capacity of different natural and synthetic polymers and humectants agents with the purpose to imcorporate and harnessing Apalight in to a stabile and pleasant cosmetic formula of a finished cosmetic products.
Keywords: humectant agents, dispersion, natural polymers, rheological agent, particles.

Photo-Sensitive Azo-Polysiloxanic Micelles

SILVIA GRAMA, GABRIELA LISĂ, NICOLAE HURDUC

pages 153 - 162
Abstract
The paper presents the synthesis and characterization of some azo-polysiloxanes modified with quaternary ammonium groups, for generating photo-sensitive micelles, capable to aggregate/disaggregate under UV irradiation. The amphiphilic polymers were obtained starting from a polysiloxane with chlorobenzyl groups in the side-chain. In the first step, the precursor was modified with azo-aromatic groups (35% substitution degree); the chlorobenzyl groups unreacted after the first reaction step was quaternized with different tertiary amines. The structures of the synthesized polymers were confirmed using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (thermo-gravimetric and DSC). The amphiphilic azo-polysiloxanes are capable to generate micelles in water. The critical aggregation concentration values are 6.5x10-3 g/L and 1.3x10-2 g/L. The disaggregation process under UV irradiation of the micellar systems was also investigated. For the amphiphilic azo-polysiloxanes during the photo-isomerization investigation a series of abnormalities have been observed distinguishing a different behaviour of polymers depending on the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio.
Keywords: amphiphilic polymers, photosensitive micelles, fluorescence spectroscopy.

A Comparison of Kinetic Models Applied for Cd(II) Removal by S. Cerevisiae

RALUCA MARIA HLIHOR, MARIANA DIACONU, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 163 - 171
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of chemisorption kinetic models applied for Cd(II) removal from wastewaters by non-viable biomass of S. cerevisiae. The evaluated models include the pseudo-first order, the pseudo-second order and Elovich equation. The pseudo-second order model appears to correlate the data better than the others, probably because of the potential of the model to include the influence of some determinant factors (pH and temperature).
Keywords: biosorption, chemisorption, heavy metals, kinetics, non-viable yeast biomass.

Biological Treatment of Wastewater with High Oil and Grease Content

ROXANA ROTARU, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 173 - 183
Abstract
The discharge of oil-containing wastewater to the environment increases every year due to the urbanization and industrial development. Biological wastewater treatment is one of the most important biotechnological applications. This paper presents a general approach of different types of wastewater treatment processes using enzymes and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi) as free or immobilized cells.
Keywords: bioreactors, lipid degradation, lipase, wastewater treatment.

Rheological Properties of Paper Support Reinforced with Modified Cellulose Ethers

PUIU PETREA, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN, SORIN CIOVICĂ

pages 185 - 192
Abstract
The study targets the behavior of chemically modified cellulose ethers in the acquisition of new useful features in different fields of use. Are analyzed some specific characteristics of consolidation agents of graphic supports: adhesive properties, physical and mechanical properties of reinforced support.
Keywords: cellulose ethers, adhesive properties, physico-mechanical properties.

2011, Issue LVII (LXI), Fasc. 3

Separation of Carboxylic Acids by Reactive Extraction

MĂDĂLINA POŞTARU, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 9 - 19
Abstract
Carboxylic acids are obtained by aerobe or anaerobe fermentation processes, with wide applications in food industry, chemical industry and medicine. The constant necessities for carboxylic acids and the complexity of this biochemical processes, require a new separation method, more efficient and with low costs. This overview presents the separation of some monocarboxylic, dicarboxylic and policarboxylic acids by reactive extraction and allows us to highlight some of the advantages to the conventional separation methods.
Keywords: reactive extraction, carboxylic acids, organophosphoric derivates, aliphatic amines.

Sorption Equilibrium Study of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Media onto Celolignine

DANIELA ŞUTEU, CARMEN ZAHARIA, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN

pages 21 - 28
Abstract
The potential of the celolignin (the by-product of the pulp industry), for removal the cationic dye Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions of pH = 6 was evaluated by the batch technique as a function of dye concentration and temperature of solution. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Tempkin adsorption isotherms were used to describe the equilibrium sorption data and to determine its corresponding isotherm constants. The results of this study evidenced that the celolignin has the potential to remove cationic Methylene Blue dye from aqueous effluents.
Keywords: celolignin cationic dye, sorption isotherms.

Performance Study for the “AQUARIUS-01” Multi-Step Device, in the Process of Obtaining Drinking Water for Household Applications and Emergency Situations

DAN POPOVICI, CORNELIU ONISCU, ALINA TROFIN

pages 29 - 41
Abstract
This study’s objectives aim to find the conditions for obtaining drinking, high purity water, as a fundamental requirement of a modern society. The paper presents the results obtained with the AQUARIUS-01 multi-step device, conceived for the processes of transforming raw water into a drinking one, also for enhancing the qualities of the processed water and for removing the nitrites and nitrates from the local sources of drinking water, including the groundwater sources (the wells from rural area). We offer an easy to apply solution for removing the impurities and especially of the nitrites and nitrates from the drinking water sources.
Keywords: turbidity, organic substances content, filtration, nitrites, nitrates.

Layered Double Hydroxides as Inorganic Versatile and Multifunctional Materials

DRAGOŞ MARDARE, MIHAELA BÎRSANU, GABRIELA APOSTOLESCU, GABRIELA CÂRJĂ

pages 43 - 62
Abstract
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are lamellar mixed hydroxide containing positively charged main layers and undergoing anion exchange chemistry. LDHs have anionic exchange capacity and the ability to capture organic and inorganic anions makes them almost unique as inorganic materials. This article provides an overview of the LDHs structure and composition, synthesis of these anion clays, characterization techniques and potential applications of these materials, including catalysis, ion exchange/adsorption, and medicine, used as uncalcined or calcined LDHs.
Keywords: application, calcination, layered double hydroxide, hydrotalcite, structure.

Recent Advances on the Separation of β-Lactamic Antibiotics: Penicilin G

ALEXANDRA CRISTINA BLAGA, SZE KI CAROL LIN

pages 63 - 76
Abstract
Among the different classes of antibiotics (penicillins, tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides and amphenicols), the first ones are the most widely used, for their broad antibacterial activity. Several new methods besides the usual organic solvent extraction have been developed over the last few years for the separation of this type of antibiotics. Liquid-liquid extraction, combined with chemical reaction or reextraction- reactive extraction, respectively pertraction, are alternatives for separations in bioprocessing and can significally improve the overall yield. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) used with hydrophilic ionic, AOT-reverse micelles and a soft separation technology with bubble mass transfer, solvent sublation were also analyzed for the separation.
Keywords: Penicillin G, reactive extraction, pertraction, solvent sublation, ATPS, AOT-reverse micelles.

Direct Extraction of Biosynthetic Products from Fermentation Broths

ALEXANDRA CÂRLESCU, ANCA-IRINA GALACTION, DAN CAŞCAVAL

pages 77 - 87
Abstract
The direct extraction is a relatively new method for an efficient separation and concentration of fermentation products without biomass filtration. Therefore, the fermentation and the subsequent downstream processes are integrated in a single step and the biosynthetic product is recovered from the fermentation broth during its formation. This review is mainly a survey of new technologies including reactive extraction and pertraction. These extraction processes are used for the recovery of some biosynthetic products from fermentation broth such as: antibiotics (Penicillin G, erythromycin), carboxylic acids (propionic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, butyric acid, pyruvic acid, citric and acetic acid), alcohols (butanol, ethanol) and amino acids (phenylalanine, valine).
Keywords: biosynthetic products, fermentation broth, in-situ separation, direct extraction.

Development of Novel Hybrid Materials Consisting of Functional Block Copolymers and Metals or Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Order to Investigate their Electromagnetic Features

MARIA DEMETRIOU, PETRI PAPAPHILIPPOU, THEODORA KRASIA-CHRISTOFOROU, ALINA NEAMŢU, ROMEO CIOBANU

pages 89 - 94
Abstract
The necessity for new polymers capable of providing stability at the interfaces of materials with different chemical structures, polarities and cohesion energies has led to the development of numerous synthetic methodologies for this purpose.
Keywords: functionalized polymers, hybrid materials, Pd and Au nanoparticles.

A Variant of Modeling and Optimization for Simple Extraction with Multiple Contacts

TIBERIU-MIHAI STURZU, IOAN MĂMĂLIGĂ, VIORICA NICU

pages 95 - 104
Abstract
The paper depicts an analytical model that allows the estimation of mass reports of the useful component in extracts and refined mixtures, the efficiency of each extractive step and the global efficacy of the n steps, for simple extraction with multiple contacts, in ideal conditions, imposed owing to some simplified hypotheses. We realized the assessment of the model, using the graphic method and presented its possibility of application for the extraction of acetone out of wastewaters using kerosene, a process for which we also realized an optimization out of economical reasons.
Keywords: efficiency, extractive step, acetone, wastewater, kerosene.

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Romanian Artemisia Species

BIANCA IVĂNESCU, GABRIELA CIOBANU

pages 105 - 110
Abstract
The growing appeal for the biological activities of plant phenolics and flavonoids prompt us to evaluate their content in three indigenous wild Artemisia species, commonly used in phytotherapy for a wide range of conditions. The study includes the species Artemisia absinthium L. (wormwood), Artemisia annua L. (annual wormwood) and Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort), largely spread in Romanian flora. The total content of phenolic compounds was assessed by Folin -Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The total flavonoids content was determined by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. Results show that all studied species have high flavonoids content and total phenolic content. Especially, the ethanol extract of Artemisia vulgaris is distinguished by its content in phenolic compounds, almost double than the other tested extracts.
Keywords: phenolics, flavonoids, Artemisia species.

Studies Concerning the Obtaining and Characterization of Lignophenols Derivatives

IULIAN-ANDREI GÎLCĂ, ADINA-MIRELA CĂPRARU, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 111 - 118
Abstract
This paper presents the results on the obtaining and characterization of a lignin derivative synthesized by reaction with cresol. Lignin (L2, Sarkanda grass offered by the Granit Research Development SA company) was condensed with p-cresol leading to a lignophenol derivative which is then modified by carboxymethylation.Thus a product which is soluble in an aqueous 5% NaOH solution was obtained. Lignin’s condensation with cresol and further carboxymethylation of the lignocresol derivative was evidenced by FTIR data. Performing this sequence of reactions was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Also, tomato seeds germination tests showed that this lignin derivative is not toxic.
Keywords: lignin derivative, lignophenol, carboxymethylation, lignocresol.

Microwave-Assisted Copolymerization of Styrene with Methyl Methacrylate and Butylacrylate

CAMELIA MIHĂILESCU, ANA NICONOV, VICTOR BULACOVSCHI

pages 119 - 128
Abstract
The co-polymerization of styrene with methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate under the microwave conditions was investigated. For the studied systems the monomer reactivity ratios were calculated by using three different methods (Finemann-Ross, Kelen-Tudos and Yezreliev), and compared with literature reported data. Finally, the obtained copolymers were characterized thermally and spectrally.
Keywords: Microwave; Copolymerization; Styrene; Methylmethacrylate, Buthyl Acrylate.

Photophysical Properties of Polyrotaxanes Based on Fluorene Copolymers

AURICA FARCAŞ, IULIANA STOICA, NARCISA MARANGOCI, CRISTIAN PEPTU, FLAVIAN FARCAŞ

pages 129 - 137
Abstract
Photophysical properties of polyrotaxanes based on fluorene copolymers were investigated. The inclusion complexation results in improvements of the solubility as well as in different surface morphology, photophysical, and thermal properties of the rotaxane copolymer as compared to its non-complexed homologue.
Keywords: cyclodextrins, threading, fluorene copolymers, fluorescence, blue-emission.

Preliminary Study Concerning the Applicability of π-Conjugated Polymers with Rotaxane Architectures

AURICA FARCAŞ, IULIANA STOICA, FLAVIAN FARCAŞ, NARCISA MARANGOCI, CRISTIAN PEPTU

pages 139 - 147
Abstract
The effect of complexation of a poly [2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-2,7 fluorene] copolymer into the inner cavity of native β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the electro-optical properties was investigated and compared with the non-rotaxane copolymer. Our study demonstrates how the electronic properties of fluorene copolymer can be tuned by using host molecules, which could be important for electronic applications.
Keywords: interlocked molecules, cyclodextrins, threading, fluorene copolymers, blue-emission.

Study on the Influence of Formulation Parameters on the Pharmacotechnical Characteristics of Hydrophilic Carbopol Matrix Tablets Using a D-Optimal Experimental Design

LĂCRĂMIOARA OCHIUZ, MIHAELA MOSCALU, GABRIELA CIOBANU

pages 149 - 155
Abstract
The aim of the present research involved the analysis of the formulation parameters (concentration and type of polymer) on the properties of carbopol matrix tablets with the final goal of preparing modified release tablets with sodium alendronate. 15 different formulations of matrix tablets were prepared with Carbopol 71 (C71), Carbopol 971 (C971) and Carbopol 974 (C974), in proportions between 0 – 45%. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method, using a Korsch EK0 tablet press. Characterization of tablet parameters involved the following measurements: mass uniformity, thickness, diameter, hardness and friability. Data fitting and calculation of statistical indicators in order to validate the experimental design, as well as the analysis of the experimental design were carried out using the MODDE 9.0 optimization program. For the study we chose a D-optimal experimental design with four variables and five levels. The independent variables were formulation factors which were abbreviated as follows: C71 (X1), C971 (X2), C974 (X3) and Ld (X4). Building the factorial matrix involved coding the variables with numbers related to their concentration range in the tablet formulations. The tablet characteristics were set as dependent variables as follows: hardness (Y1), friability (Y2), diameter (Y3), thickness (Y4), mass uniformity + % (Y5) and mass uniformity - % (Y6). The model was validated based on the statistics coefficients of reproducibility, the model validity, multiple regression coefficient (R2), according to the ANOVA results. The results showed good fitting and an appropriate predictability of the experimental model. Analysis of the full experimental design confirmed a major influence of the X1 and X2 variables on the analyzed tablet characteristics. Also, significant interactions were found between variables X1-X2, X1-X4 and X3-X4 respectively, having a high impact on the dependent variables of the design.
Keywords: carbopol, matrix tablets, sodium alendronate, formulation.

Synthesis and Characterization of a Succinimide Complex

MIHAELA-DANA TUTULEA, IOAN ROŞCA, IGOR CREŢESCU, GABRIELA LISĂ

pages 159 - 163
Abstract
Zinc (II) sulphate complex of succinimide ligand has been synthesized in water medium. The solid coordination compound has been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR spectra, thermal analysis and crystallographic data. The elemental analysis data showed the formation of 1:2 [M:L] complex. The thermal decomposition was found to proceed in two steps.
Keywords: zinc complexes, succinimide.

Thermo-Sensitive Graft Polysiloxanic Micelles

ANCA DANIELA HODOROG (RUSU), GABRIELA LISĂ, CONSTANŢA IBĂNESCU, NICOLAE HURDUC

pages 165 - 173
Abstract
The paper presents the synthesis and characterization of some thermo-sensitive complex polymeric systems, capable to change their properties at supramolecular level, under thermal stimuli. Amphiphilic copolymers are well known as precursors for the preparation of micellar drug carriers. The thermo-sensitive polymeric micelles were obtained by living radical polymerization, the polymerization reaction occuring by a SET-LRP mechanism starting from a polysiloxane with chlorobenzyl groups in the side-chain. The amphiphilic polymers are capable of self-assembling into micelles in water, ability confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and rheological tests (studying the dependence of loss and storage moduli on temperature). To evaluate the aggregation capacity of the polymers, the classical method using pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy was used.
Keywords: thermo-sensitivity, micelles, aggregation capacity.

Utilisation of Composite Materials for the Study of Gas Drying by Adsorption

MARIA SPIRIDON, IOAN SOLOMON, STELIAN PETRESCU

pages 175 - 183
Abstract
This paper describes the mass transfer kinetics at air drying by adsorption in fixed bed of composite materials and for this aim it had been utilized two granular composite materials: MCC1 and MCC1* obtained by impregnation of active carbon with two calcium chloride solutions: 15 and 30% weight. The adsorption experiments were carried out using an experimental set-up which contains as principal element an adsorption column with 0.037 m in diameter and the height of the granular fixed bed was 0.4 m. The adsorption is realized in dynamic regime, at certain values of air flow velocity (1.2; 1.7; 2.2; 2.7 m3/h), temperatures (20, 30, 40, 48ºC) and relative humidity (24.5; 17; 40; 60; 68; 80%). It had been determined, experimentally, the variation of the water vapour concentration for both gaseous and solid faze, and also the variation of the adsorption rate as a function of time at the specified values, for the composite materials.
Keywords: adsorption, kinetics, composite materials.

Influence of Operational Parameters on the Removal of 4-Chlorophenol from Wastewater by Heterogeneous Fenton Process

DANIELA ARSENE, CEZAR CATRINESCU, CARMEN TEODOSIU

pages 185 - 196
Abstract
This study presents an evaluation of the catalytic performance of AlFe pillared clays for the catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of phenolic aqueous wastes. All the mixed AlFe oxide PILC displayed a good catalytic activity, but AlFeMt PILC was the most active, being selected for detailed studies. Important factors affecting catalyst activity were studied in this paper i.e.: the effect of pH, temperature, catalyst loading, 4-CP and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The experimental results indicate that the use of this catalyst allows a total elimination of 4-CP and a significant removal of total organic carbon, this process being a promising advanced wastewater treatment technique for industrial effluents.
Keywords: pillared clays, para-chlorophenol, hydrogen peroxide, oxidation.

Synthesis and Association Capacity Evaluation of Some New Donor/Acceptor Azo-Polymers

ALINA RAICU LUCA, GABRIELA LISĂ, NICOLAE HURDUC

pages 197 - 203
Abstract
The aim of paper is to report the synthesis, characterization and association capacity of some new polymers containing azo-benzenic groups in the side chain, capable to response to light stimuli, the result being the modification of supramolecular architecture of the material. The azo-polymers are attractive both from perspective of surface relief gratings for cell culture, and also from perspective of formation of 3D networks with potential applications in the drug delivery field.
Keywords: azo-polymers, donor/acceptor groups, association capacity.

Influence of Copper Ions in Aqueous Extracts of Vitis Vinifera Grape Seeds on the Development of Rhodotorula Mucilaginosa Yeast

ANCA-ROXANA HAINAL, IRINA VOLF, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 205 - 211
Abstract
The paper presents results of a study concerning the influence of polyphenolic compounds from aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera (Merlot) seeds and of copper ions added in different concentrations on the development of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa yeast. For this purpose, we followed the effects of copper ions concentration introduced in these extracts along with total polyphenols. Thus, it was found that the introduction of copper ions in the culture medium alongside polyphenols influences the biomass yield, its values decreasing at the same time with the evolution of the culture.
Keywords: Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, grape seeds, polyphenols, copper ions.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Azo Aromatic Acid Chlorides with Liquid Crystalline Properties

GHEORGHE SIMION, DRAGOŞ FLORIN IUGANU, IRINA CÂRLESCU, DAN SCUTARU

pages 213 - 219
Abstract
Five mesogenic groups with liquid crystalline properties, having the general formula ClOC-C6H4-N=N-C6H4-O-CnH2n+1, n=6÷10, have been synthesized and characterized. Their mesomorphic properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). The synthesized compounds present enantiotropic liquid crystalline behavior with smectic textures. The obtained acyl chlorides presented quite unusual low isotropisation/crystallization temperatures. The thermal stability was established by using thermogravimetric analysis. The synthesized compounds may be further used in acylation reactions in the synthesis of new classes of bent core liquid crystals.
Keywords: azo mesogenic groups, liquid crystals, thermal stability.

Soft-Computing Methodology Based on Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Applied to a Photocatalytic Decomposition Process

CIPRIAN GEORGE PIULEAC, RENATA FURTUNĂ, SILVIA CURTEANU

pages 221 - 232
Abstract
An Artificial Intelligence methodology based on a combination between a neural network and a genetic algorithm was applied to the complex optimization problem of a photocatalytic oxidation process - removal of triclopyr from the synthetic wastewaters. Both considered modeling and optimization procedures, developed in a neural network – genetic algorithm structure, were designed using a database from the literature and own experimental data. The neural network model, included into the optimization procedure, was a multilayer feed-forward perceptron type with one hidden layer. The problem was solved with a standard (simple) genetic algorithm, which computed the optimal values for reaction conditions (concentrations of TiO2 and H2O2) in order to determine the minimum final concentration of the pollutant, obtained in the shortest irradiation time. The validation results proved the accuracy of the applied methodology.
Keywords: Neural network modeling, genetic algorithm optimization, photocatalytic process oxidation.

2011, Issue LVII (LXI), Fasc. 4

Biological Removal of Paraffinic Hydrocarbons from Petrochemical Industry Wastewaters

ELENA FOLESCU

pages 9 - 31
Abstract
This paper is a summary of various methods to treat oilfield’s wastewaters, especially by biodegradation processes. These wastewaters contain a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. The contamination by hydrocarbons from oilfield produced waters represents a global concern for the potential consequences on ecosystem and human health. For this reason an increasing attention has been directed toward the research of new strategies and environmental-friendly technologies to be applied for the remediation of sediments and water contaminated by hydrocarbons. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. Globally, bioremediation is a common choice for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites and wastewaters. There are several challenges facing biological treatment processes such as the necessity to monitor the microorganism behavior and to provide the optimum growth conditions, which has to be done continuously to avoid any downtimes.
Keywords: biodegradation, hydrocarbons, oilfield, wastewater management.

Characterization of Some Condensation Silicone Impression Materials

OANA ŢĂNCULESCU, DANIEL ŢÂMPU, MONICA ANDRONACHE, RALUCA MARIA MOCANU, ADRIAN DOLOCA

pages 33 - 45
Abstract
Dimensional stability, details reproduction and wettability are considered the main features of any impression material, and need to be taken into consideration to achieve a good restoration. In our study we focused on condensation silicones for social and economic reasons, these being the most frequently used materials in common practice. The used materials were: Stomaflex (Spofa – Czech Republic), Oranwash – Zetaplus (Zhermack- Italy), Optosil - Xantopren (Heraeus-Kulzer - Germany), Speedex (Coltène Whaledent- Switzerland). For a quantitative dimensional stability assessment a new device that eliminates adhesion and friction was designed. Among the fluid impression materials, one can notice that the most stable from the dimensional point of view are those manufactured by Colthène-Whaledent - Speedex and the largest deformations have been recorded by Spofa - Stomaflex products. In determining the degree of fidelity of the impression materials, grids of different sizes have been used as reference. It has been noticed that all the materials render well the details of the 2 grids (18 μm). The details of the third grid are rendered well only by Xantopren and Speedex, without voids or defects. For the hydrophilic character of these materials, we measured the evolution of the contact angle between the artificial saliva and materials before setting and after setting. Data has been then recorded using DSA10 (Krϋss GmbH, Hamburg) droplet analysis. Speedex is the most hydrophilic material, followed by Xantopren, Oranwash VL, Oranwash L and Stomaflex.
Keywords: condensation silicones, dimensional stability, details reproduction, hydrophilic character.

Antimicrobial Properties of Paper Consolidated with Modified Cellulose Ethers

PUIU PETREA, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN, SORIN CIOVICĂ

pages 47 - 55
Abstract
The study concerns the behavior of microorganisms attack in chemically modified cellulose ethers by cianoethylation. For assessing the biological potential three test methods have been used: resistance to attack of microorganisms on consolidated papers, resistance tests to microbial attack of solution placed on the growth medium and resistance tests to microbial attack directly in solutions. Evaluating the three methods used for testing of biologically active potential it is observed that cellulose ethers chemically modified (m-MC, m-CMC) show a better stability to attack of microorganisms compared with native cellulose ethers (MC, CMC).
Keywords: Modified cellulose ethers, resistance to microorganisms, paper consolidated.

The Noise Pollution in Career Roşia of Jiu

ANDREEA CRISTINA STANCI, AURORA STANCI, IOAN DUMITRESCU

pages 57 - 62
Abstract
The Career Roşia of Jiu is a source of noise because the main sources of noise pollution are tracked excavators with rotor and bandconveyors. The excavators with rotor is a importance source of noise in career, but no in inhabited areas or forest because of the way the extraction in rung, share on the surface contained between 38 m and 79 m is a natural barrier against the propagation of noise. Not the same can be said about using bandconveyors which transport excavated material, this band reaching distance of 15-20 m from inhabited areas. Combating noise produced by them can be achieved by in closing acoustic enclosures. The proposed method of noise reduction over the entire frequency range, leads to a reduction of pollution noise of up to 35% in function of the construction and dimension the acoustic enclosures.
Keywords: pollution, noise control, noise attenuation.

Analysis of Environmental Impact for Industry Products. Case Study: Paper Manufacturing

MĂDĂLINA PETRARU, CRISTINA GHINEA, HANS BRESSERS, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 63 - 74
Abstract
Pulp and paper industry has a high environmental impact that occurs in all phases of the paper lifecycle, from fibre acquisition to manufacturing and final to disposal. Reducing paper consumption is an important step to diminish the environmental impacts. Substitution of virgin fibres with recovered fibres reduces the demand for wood and requires less energy. For evaluation of the environmental impacts and potential impacts associated with a paper product can be used various methodologies like life-cycle assessment (LCA). The goal of this paper is to determine the environmental performance of paper products technological process based on the evaluation of four scenarios: the first scenario consists in paper products manufactured from virgin fibre and the other three scenarios contain the manufacturing process of paper with recovered fibre as raw materials and with different environmental impacts (80%, 60% and 40%). The evaluation was realized using GaBi4 software that supports every stage of the analysis, from data collection to quantification of the results and highlights the performance of the evaluated processes. GaBi4 offers the possibility to characterize the inventory results in several impact categories based on different methodologies, such as: CML 2001, CML 96, EDIP 1997, EDIP 2003, EI99, etc.
Keywords: environmental impact, life cycle assessment, recovered paper.

Impact Compounds of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Wastewater on the Environment and Methods to Improve

CRISTINA ELENA IURCIUC, MIHAI DIMA, DANIELA ROCA

pages 75 - 82
Abstract
Effluents after the biological stage classical composition presents different forms of nitrogen (ammonium salts, nitrites, nitrates, organic nitrogen) and phosphorus (phosphorus organic orthophosphates, polyphosphates) which inside the receiver are easily assimilated by algae, favoring excessive multiplication of algae. This directly contributes to increased rate of eutrophication. Research in recent years by specialists in our country show a significant increase in surface water and groundwater. Classical procedures wastewaters retain these compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus at a rate of 2% mechanical and 30% in the biological stage. In this context the authors, based on extensive research literature, highlighting the harmful effects of these pollutants on the environment and efficiency advanced technological methods to resolve the problem. Keywords: effluent, emissary, eutrophication, nutrients, pollutants, tertiary.

Construction and Characterization of Some Composite Layer-by-Layer thin Films Based on Chitosan and Synthetic Polyanions

CLAUDIU-AUGUSTIN GHIORGHIȚĂ, DANIEL ȚÎMPU, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 83 - 89
Abstract
The objective of this study was the construction of some nanocomposite films by the layer-by-layer deposition of chitosan as a polycation and two synthetic polyanions, differing by the ionic group strengths and molar masses, i.e. poly(sodium acrylate) with Mv = 16000 g/mol and poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate) with Mw = 170000 g/mol. The influence of the polyanion type and of the number of double layers against the properties of the obtained films has been studied by atomic force microscopy. The multilayer films showed a smooth surface, the roughness being smaller than 1 nm. The histograms showed a very small dimensional dispersion of the surface formations.
Keywords: nanocomposite multilayer films, chitosan, atomic force microscopy.

Separation and Characterization of Lignin Resulted in Organosolv Pulping

IULIAN-ANDREI GÎLCĂ, ADRIAN CĂTĂLIN PUIŢEL, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 91 - 97
Abstract
As a result of the textile bast fiber technological separation process, the secondary products may be biorefined in order to separate the main chemical components. The paper describes a lignin separation method and the recovery of the residual cooking liquor. In order to control the glycerol recovery degree a viscosity concentration dependence method was proposed. The separated lignins unmodified or modified by physical or chemical treatments may be used to obtain nanoparticles.
Keywords: biorefining, glycerol, nano-lignin, recovery.

 Study Conditions on Technological Water-Treatment in Iaşi City and Trihalomethanes’ (THM) Appearance

MARIA COHL, CARMEN TEODOSIU, ION BALASANIAN

pages 99 - 108
Abstract
Water to be supplied to consumers must meet the requirements for drinking and is subject to technological process of treatment which comprises four main steps, water disinfection by chlorination latter. Water chlorination is the technique most often used for drinking water disinfection. A consequence of chlorination disinfection of water by-product of disinfection is the formation of THM and their formation is the main disadvantaged of water chlorination. Organic substances, respectively humic acids and fulvic natural waters containing ketone groups that react with chlorine to form THM: chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Their identification was made in 2007-2010, and the values obtained were within the maximum permissible concentrations (MAC).
Keywords: requirements for drinking, by-product of disinfection, trihalomethanes THM.

Trypsin Immobilization onto Silica//(Polyelectrolyte)n Hybrid Microparticles

FLORIN BUCĂTARIU, FRANK SIMON, GHEORGHE FUNDUEANU, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 109 - 116
Abstract
A novel route to synthesize silica//poly(vinyl amine) (silica//PVAm) and silica//chitosan (silica//CHI) hybrid microparticles containing trypsin attached on the surface was developed. PVAm and CHI were adsorbed from salt-free aqueous solution onto silica microparticles with par­ticle and pore diameter of 40-60 μm, and 100 nm, respectively. Then, the enzyme was covalently grafted to the surface via a glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linker. Alternatively, a thick layer was chemisorbed by cross-linking two polyelectrolyte layers with GA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiometric and polyelec­trolyte titrations were employed to obtain information about the polyelectrolyte adsorption and multilayer formation, as well as the amount of the trypsin that was covalently bound to the functionalized surfaces. The study showed that only PVAm formed a double layer onto silica microparticles, while the amount of grafted enzyme did not significantly vary with the adsorbed amount and polyelectrolyte type.
Keywords: chitosan, poly(vinyl amine), silica, trypsin, XPS.

Rheological Properties of the Ionic Composite Hydrogels Obtained Below the Freezing Point of the Reaction Solutions

MARIA VALENTINA DINU, MARIA MARINELA PERJU, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 117 - 125
Abstract
In this work, ionic composite hydrogels were synthesized by free-radical polymerization using dextran sulfate (DxS) as a physical entrapped polymer, acrylamide (AAm) monomer and N,N'-methylene(bis)acrylamide (BAAm) as cross-linking agent. The viscoelastic properties of these hydrogels were investigated by oscillatory shear measurements under small-deformation conditions. Changes in the rheological properties of ionic composite hydrogels based on polyacrylamide (PAAm) and DxS have been studied in terms of polymerization temperature, cross-linker ratio and initial monomer concentration. The results showed that PAAm/DxS hydrogels obtained at room temperature (22ºC) behave like weak gels, while those obtained below the freezing point of the reaction mixture (−18ºC) exhibited an enhancement in the storage modulus, irrespective of the cross-linker ratio. This behavior indicated that by conducting the synthesis of hydrogels below the freezing point of the reaction solutions a reinforcement of the elasticity of hydrogels is achieved.
Keywords: ionic composite, hydrogels, rheology.

Nonwoods: Fiber Sources for Papermaking Pulp Production. Laboratory Trials

BOGDAN MARIAN TOFĂNICĂ, ADRIAN CĂTĂLIN PUIŢEL, DAN GAVRILESCU

pages 127 - 140
Abstract
Until the mid to late XIXth century, nonwood plant fibers were the main fiber raw materials for the pulp and paper industry. Increasing demand and developments in low cost wood pulping resulted in a large expansion of the wood-based pulp and paper industry during the early to mid XXth century. Nowadays, due to continuous growth in the demand of virgin fiber and to some increased environmentalists’ pressure on the pulp and paper industry, researchers have grown their attention on possible alternative sources of fiber raw materials such as nonwoods. The paper presents the experimental results obtained during the investigations on the possibilities of pulping of nonwoods fiber sources and bleaching of the obtained pulps. Reed (Phragmites communis), oat straws (Avena sativa) and rapeseed stalks (Brassica napus) were chosen as fibrous raw materials for pulping by using alkaline processes. The obtained pulps were analyzed from lignin content, viscosity and papermaking perspectives.
Keywords: nonwoods, pulp, agricultural residues, beatability.

Studies Concerning the Obtaining and Characterization of Copper Complexes and Lignin Derivatives Used in Birch Veneer Protection

ADINA-MIRELA CĂPRARU, IULIAN-ANDREI GÎLCĂ, ELENA UNGUREANU, TEODOR MĂLUŢAN, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 141 - 146
Abstract
The paper presents the results obtained in a study concerning the obtaining and characterization of hydroxymethyl- epoxy lignins which were tested in terms of their biocides properties in birch veener protection. Lignins from annual plants wheat straw (L1) and grass Sarkanada (L2), offered by the company Granit (Switzerland) was used. By applying suitable conditions of synthesis, it was possible to obtain lignin derivatives using the reaction of hydroxymethylation followed by epoxidation. The resulted products were applied in the treatment of birch veneer samples. These were successively immersed in solutions containing copper ions and unmodified and modified lignins with concentration of 5% dissolved furfuryl alcohol. The biostability of veneer samples thus treated were appreciated through their burial in soil for six months and characterized by mass loss and contact angle. The obtained results show that the treatment of birch veneer with complexes of hydroxymethyl-epoxy lignin’s with copper offer high stability of the substrate timber products in comparison with unmodified products.
Keywords: lignin, hidroxymetylation, epoxydation, birch veener, biostability.

Dissolved Oxygen Concentration Profiles in a Mbbr Reactor

IOANA CORINA MOGA

pages 147 - 156
Abstract
The MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) biofilm technology is based on specially designed plastic biofilm carriers or biocarriers that are suspended and în continuous movement within a tank or reactor of specified volume. The industrial and municipal wastewater is led to the MBBR treatment reactor where biofilm, growing within the internal structures of the biocarriers, degrade the pollutants. These pollutants that need to be removed în order to treat the wastewater are food or substrate for growth of the biofilm. The biocarrier design is critical due to requirements for good mass transfer of substrate and oxygen to the microorganisms and there is a continuous R&D în the area of the MBBR biofilm technology. The design of associated aerators, grids, sieves, spray nozzles and other integral parts to the reactor is also of great importance în making up the system as a whole. That is way this paper presents several experimental researches in order to determine the efficiency of the aeration system. The quantity of the dissolved oxygen is determined for a MBBR reactor.
Keywords: aeration system, MBBR bioreactor, dissolved oxygen, dispersion.

Nanostructured Materials Used in Catalysis

IULIANA DANIELA DOBREA, MIHAELA SILION, DENISA NISTOR, MARCEL IONEL POPA

Abstract
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) or anionic clays which have drawn attention especially through different practical applications: adsorbers, ion exchangers, systems with controlled delivery of active principles as well as selective catalysts in different chemical reactions such as: dehydrogenation, alkylation, reduction, addition to different bonds. Thermal treatments applied to these materials lead to obtaining mixed oxides used mainly in catalysis. This article focuses on a general presentation of the LDHs synthesis methods, LDHs modern characterizing techniques as well as key factors which influence the obtaining of LDHs precursors with application in catalyst processes.
Keywords: layered double hydroxides, catalysis, hydrotalcite, mixed oxides, noble metals.

The Walnut Tree (Juglans Regia L) Characterization and Uses

CLAUDIA COBZARU

pages 171 - 186
Abstract
The walnut tree belongs to the Juglandaceae tribe cultivated especially for the nutritive value of the leaves and fruits. The leaves contain a great number of elements, namely: vitamin C, flavonoids, juglone, carotene, tannins, essential oil etc. Due to these components the walnut leaves show astringent and hypoglycemic properties being applied in the phytotherapy and cosmetic fields. On the other hand the kernel is one of the main aliments recommended for completing the diet since it contains many nutrients such as: fatty compounds, proteins, minerals, etc. A great number of studies regarding the nutritive value and uses of the walnut are to be found in scientific literature and some comments on their content are presented in the present paper.
Keywords: walnut tree, characterization, medicinal and cosmetic applications.

BOOK REVIEW:
Cosmetically Active Ingredients: Recent Advances. Edited by Cosmetics &Toiletries Allured Books, 2011, ISBN: 978-1-932633-87-0.

review by CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 187-190

2010, Issue LVI (LX), Fasc. 1

The New Complex Compounds for Textile Industry: Cu(II) with 2-Amino-6-Methoxybenzotyazol-SodiumSulfonate→1-Naphtol-4-Sodium Sulfonate

LAURA CHIRILĂ, DOINA SIBIESCU, ROMEN BUTNARU, MIHAELA AURELIA VIZITIU

pages 11 - 16
Abstract
This paper presents the obtaining and the study of the compounds resulted from the interaction of Cu(II) with: 2 amino- 6-methoxybenzotiazol sodium sulfonate →1 naphtol-4-sodium sulfonate as ligand. The ligand is of azoic complexable dyes type. The methods used for analyzing the obtained complex compounds were: pH¬metry, conductometry and UV- VIS absorption spectroscopy.The combination ratios and the stability constants of the resulted compounds were determined using the molar ratio method (J.H.Yoe and A.L.Jones) and Harvey-Manning method.
Keywords: Cu(II) complex compound, 2-amino-6-methoxybenzotiazol sodium sulfonate acid→1 naphtol-4-sodium sulfonate as ligand, UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy.

Removal of Nickel(II) from Aqueous Solituons by Adsorption on Peat

CORNELIU CARAMALĂU, LAURA BULGARIU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 17 - 27
Abstract
In this study is analyzed the effectiveness of Romanian peat as available and cheaper adsorbent in removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption experiments were done in batch system, in order to establish the influence of initial solution pH, peat dose, initial nickel(II) concentration and contact time, on the adsorption efficiency. Two adsorption isotherm models, Langmuir and Freundlich, have been used to determine the best-fitting model for the experimental data, and various adsorption parameters (such as: qmax, KL and G) have been calculated. The results of this study indicate that Romanian peat has the potential o become an effective and economical adsorbent for the removal of nickel(II) ions from industrial waste waters.
Keywords: adsorption, nickel(II) ions, peat, isotherms.

Synthesis and Caracterisation of Some Asimetric [1,3,4]-Oxadiazole Derivatives with Liquid Crystalline Properties

ELENA-RALUCA CIOANCĂ, DANIELA WILSON, DAN SCUTARU

pages 29 - 39
Abstract
The synthesis and structural characterization of some asymmetric [1 ,3,4]oxadiazole derivatives containing azo linkage are reported. Compounds were prepared by esterification of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol with a series of 4-(4-alkoxyfenilazo)-benzoic acids containing with 6 10 and 18 carbon atoms. The structural characterization of these compounds was established by using spectroscopic analysis (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy). All the reported compounds present liquid crystalline properties under polarized optical microscopy investigations.
Keywords: asymmetric [1, 3, 4]oxadiazol derivatives, liquid crystalline compounds.

New Compound of Cu(II) with Ligand 1-(3,5-Dibromine-2-Hydroxy Phenil)-2-(4-Methyl Phenyl)-Sulfanyl Ethanone

IRINA SPĂTĂRESCU, IOAN ROŞCA, ADRIAN CĂILEAN, DOINA SIBIESCU, GABRIELA APOSTOLESCU

pages 41 - 48
Abstract
The new coordination compound obtained from the chemical reaction between the cation Cu(II) and the ligand 1-(3,5- dibromine-2-hydroxy phenil)-2-(4-methyl phenyl)-sulfanyl ethanone in the molar ratio of 1:2 was characterized by the: chemical analysis, thermogravimetry, infrared absorption spectroscopy and electronic spin resonance spectra. The obtained results have proved that the central atom Cu(II) is tetracoordinated with oxygen atoms provided by the phenolic and carbonyl group of the used ligand. The studied compound presents a high level of thermal stability, and this is the reason why it decomposes in the temperature range of 200−550ºC during three stages.
Keywords: Copper(II), thermogravimetry, compound paramagnetic.

Behaviour in Aqueous Solution of the Complex Cu(II) and N-Hydroxy-Succinimide

MIHAELA-DANA TUTULEA, DOINA SIBIESCU, IOAN ROŞCA, IGOR CREŢESCU

pages 49 - 54
Abstract
This paper presents the preparation of the complex compounds based on Cu(II) and N-hydroxy-succinimide, and respectively a study of the complex stability depending on some experimental factors. The studies were performed using the pH-metry, conductometry and the UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The combination ratio, central atom:ligand and the stability constants for the new obtained compounds were determined using “molar ratio method” (J.H.Yoe and A.L.Jones), and Harvay-Manning method. It was determined the pH range coresponding to the stability of the above mentioned complexes.
Keywords: Cu(II) complex, UV-VIS spectrometry, stability constant, N-hydroxy¬succinimide.

New Hydrophylized Catalysts Based on Phthalocyanine Structures Modified with Peptide

ADINA IONUŢA GAVRILĂ, PETRE CHIPURICI, LAMBRACHE PAPAHAGI

pages 55 - 63
Abstract
The phthalocyanines alone or supported on different inorganic substrates are used as catalysts for the oxidation processes of different types of compounds. The paper presents the synthesis of the substituted phthalocyanine structures with peptide residues in order to increase the solubility in organic solvents of these phthalocyanines by the side chain or the terminal functional groups, making them adequate for homogeneous and pseudohomogeneous catalysis. The synthesis of the phthalocyanines was realized by coupling cobalt and copper tetraamino-phthalocyanines with amino acids and dipeptides, and the optimal reaction conditions were established. A comparative study between the catalytic activity of modified phthalocyanines and classical oxidation catalysts (naphtenates) in the liquid phase oxidation of p- tert-butyl toluene was realized. The synthesized phthalocyanines present a lower activity than naphtenates.
Keywords: phthalocyanines, peptides, oxidation catalysts.

Termogravimetric Analysis of Mineral and Synthetic Oils

SORIN IBĂNESCU, MARICEL DANU, CONSTANŢA IBĂNESCU, GABRIELA LISĂ

pages 65 - 71
Abstract
The current trend in automotive industry is to use more powerful and more efficient engines. To achieve this goal, lubricants must also meet the growing requirements of the new engines. As the temperature of the engine increases and the capacity of oil tank decreases, the oils should work better in current engines. This study aims the thermal characterization, in dynamic conditions, of mineral and synthetic oils. For this purpose we have used dynamic thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA). The results show a one, two or three steps degradation following a complex mechanism. The mass loss differs depending on the sample composition and the atmosphere in which the thermal decomposition was performed.
Keywords: thermal stability, mineral and synthetic oils, thermal characteristics.

Polymeric Composite Systems with Potential Medical Applications

GIANINA DODI, MARCEL IONEL POPA, DOINA HRIŢCU

pages 73 - 79
Abstract
Over the last few decades, polysaccharides have gained increasing attention in the biomedical, drug delivery and biotechnology fields. Chitosan is a natural copolymer composed of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine units linked by (1–4) glycosidic bonds that has amine and hydroxilic groups available for the attachement of a compound of interest. A number of studies concentrate on the chemical modifications of biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymers because of the significant advantages regarding the adsorbtion and possibility of interactions with biological active compounds. In this paper, we obtain a biomaterial with improved properties by chemical modification and the use of this polymer in colloidal nanoparticulate systems synthesis used in different fields.
Keywords: polysaccharides, chitosan, chemical modification, nanoparticulate systems.

HPLC Determination of Some Anthocyanins from Red Grapes

NADIA PĂUN, VIOLETA NICULESCU, RADU TAMAIAN, MARCEL IONEL POPA

pages 81 - 85
Abstract
Anthocyanins are polyphenolic compound and water-soluble pigments which assure the red, purple, and blue coloration of many fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains. Anthocyanins from red grapes not only play an important role in the colour quality of red wines but they also have many beneficial effects on human health, e.g., reduction of coronary heart disease incidence, or anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Literature mentions that the skin of red grapes is considered a good source of phenols. HPLC anthocyanin analysis can be effectively applied to determine the authenticity of various anthocyanin containing fruit juices. We developed parallel HPLC methods with MS and PDA detection in order to identify some anthocyanins from red grape juice. Our study showed the presence of six anthocyanins in the juice samples.
Keywords: anthocyanins, grapes, chromatography.

Aspects of Environmental Legislation Application Concerning the Municipal Wastes Landfills Into Iaşi County Area

CARMEN ZAHARIA, GETA IRIMIŢA

pages 87 - 97
Abstract
The paper presents some aspects of how was the environmental legislation applied in the case of municipal wastes landfills into Iaşi County area. The sustainable management of municipal wastes imposed the implementation of wastes legislation and also collecting of reliable data of waste production and characteristics together with the waste treatment facilities, sustainable waste management, establishment of recycling routes and opening the market for recycling materials, and minimization of changes for the municipal waste storage area. In this paper is evaluating how the application of environmental legislation was influencing the system of municipal waste management in Iași County area, but especially the municipal wastes storage/deposition onto existing municipal landfills.
Keywords: environmental legislation, solid wastes, Romanian landfills, sustainable management of municipal solid wastes.

Kinetic Study of the Tartaric Acid Separation from Aqueous Solution with a New Impregnated Ion Exchanger

NATALIA MARCHITAN, GHEORGHE DUCA, ALIONA MEREUŢA, ILIE SIMINICEANU

pages 99 - 107
Abstract
A new adsorbent has been prepared from Amberlite IRA-67 impregnated with the liquid ion-exchanger Amberlite LA-2 dissolved in n-hexane to recover tartaric acid (TA) from aqueous solution. The experiments done on a batch equipment proved the effectiveness of the new material: the separation degree of TA was 100% in a contact time less than 30 min for the following values of the 6 main factors: solid/liquid loading >1 g/L, T = 294 K, initial pH 2.5, initial TA concentration >1 g/100 mL, particle diameter 0.4−1.2 mm, stirring 200 min-1. The apparent activation energy has been obtained from the pseudo-second order rate constant. Its value (18.695 kJ/mol) indicated a mass transport phenomenon as rate determining step. Finally, the reasonable kinetic data correlation with the Weber-Morris model as well as with the Dumwald-Wagner model has shown that, under the investigated conditions, the slowest step of the process was the intraparticle diffusion.
Keywords: adsorption kinetics, activation energy, rate determining step, batch experiments, particle diffusion control.

Synthesis and Characterization of a New Coordination Compound of Mn(II)

SIMONA TURCUMAN (ANTIGHIN), DOINA SIBIESCU, IOAN ROŞCA, MIHAELA VIZITIU

pages 109 - 116
Abstract
In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of a new complex compound of Mn(II) with a ligand derived from morfolin-4-carboditioic acid-2-(3,5- dibrome-4-methyl-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxy-ethyl-ester, in molar ratio ligand: central atom 2:1 are presented. Characterization of the new compound was accomplished applying the following methods: chemical analysis, derivatography, infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron spin resonance.
Keywords: morfolin-4-carboditioic acid-2-(3,5-dibrome,4-methyl,2-hydroxy-phenyl)- 2-hydroxy-ethyl-ester, gravimetric determining.

Operational Conditions Studies Concerning Complexation Ability of Wheat Straw Lignin for Copper(II) Ions

TATIANA TODORCIUC, LAURA BULGARIU, VALENTIN I. POPA

pages 117 - 126
Abstract
This study investigated the interaction of lignin with copper (II) ions in batch system. In order to assess the complexation ability of lignin polymer, the adsorption process was studied by varying the operational conditions: the initial pH of the solution, the influence of the initial copper (II) concentration and lignin dosage. The maximum retention was registered at pH 6.0 (considered optimum for the investigated system), and temperature of 19.5°C when the obtained value was 9.59 mg Cu(II)/g lignin. The pH dependant retention suggests that copper (II) ions are retained probably due to ion- exchange mechanism. The experimental data were analyzed using two isotherm adsorption models (Langmuir and Freundlich), and the results fitted better to Langmuir equation, which suggests that adsorption process occurs predominantly by chemical interaction between metal ion (Cu2+) and available functional groups from lignin surface.
Keywords: wheat straw lignin, copper (II), complexation.

Spectrophotometric Method for Nitrate Analysis

LAURA BULGARIU, ANCA CEICĂ, ION BALASANIAN

pages 127 - 135
Abstract
In this study a simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the rapid determination of nitrate using chromotropic acid, directly in aqueous solutions. The reaction between nitrate ions and chromotropic acid occurs immediately in strong acid media (95 − 97% H2SO4 solution). The complex shows a maximum of adsorption at 412 nm against a blank solution, and the absorbance remains stable for at least 48 h. The method allows the nitrate determination over the range 0.62 – 9.25 mgLF1, with a molar absortivity of 2.34 103 LmolF1cmF1 and detection limit of 0.35 1 ppm. The validation of spectrophotometric method was done by recovery test of nitrate in tap water. The experimental results show that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the determination of nitrate in water samples.
Keywords: nitrate determination, chromotropic acid, spectrophotometric method, aqueous solution.

Comparative Study Concerning the Retention Thermodynamics of Some Heavy Metal Ions on Hemp Fibers

LAVINIA TOFAN, CARMEN PĂDURARU, IRINA VOLF

pages 137 - 145
Abstract
This study reveals the results of a thermodynamic characterization of the sorption process of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Cr(III) ions from diluted aqueous solutions by hemp fibers, both in natural and modified forms. Hemp is a commonly available and inexpensive cellulosic material. The thermodynamic parameters, free energy change (∆G) enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) have been calculated on the basis of Langmuir constants. The negative values of ∆G validate the feasibility and the spontaneity of the Cd(II) sorption process by natural hemp and Cu(II)retention on hemp and bleached hemp impregnated with benzoioxime, respectively. In these static sorption systems, the positive values of ∆H show the endothermic nature of the Cd(II) and Cu(II) retention by hemp. The results of this study suggest that hemp fibers may be a promising sorbent provided for environmental technologies in the future.
Keywords: heavy metal, hemp, bleached hemp, sorption process.

Formation and Flocculation Properties of Polyelectrolyte Complex Dispersions Based on Synthetic Polycations

IONEL ADRIAN DINU, MARCELA MIHAI, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 147 - 154
Abstract
Nonstoichiometric interpolyelectrolyte complexes as colloidal dispersions were prepared by the interaction of synthetic polycations which possess ammonium quaternary centers attached to an acrylic macromolecular chain, derived from poly(N,N¬dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), with two random copolymers of sodium 2- acrylamido-2- methylpropanesulfonate with t-butylacrylamide, the molar ratio between the positive and negative charges ranging between 0.05 and 0.4. The characterization of complex dispersions as a function of polyelectrolyte characteristics was performed by turbidimetric titration and dynamic light scattering. The nonstoichiometric complex nanoparticles were tested in the destabilization of kaolin model dispersion and proved to be more efficient than polycations alone, especially as concern the broadness of the flocculation window.
Keywords: poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), nonstoichiometric interpolyelectrolyte complexes, kaolin, flocculation.

Polyelectrolyte Complex Particles Based on Synthetic and Natural Polycations

MARCELA MIHAI, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 155 - 162
Abstract
The most important parameters for the applications of polyelectrolyte complexes as colloidal dispersion are the polymer concentration, the size of nanoparticles and their storage stability. In this context we have studied the influence of polycation structure on the stoichiometry, size and morphology of complex colloidal dispersions obtained from an ionic/non=ionic random copolymer of 2=acrylamido=2= methylpropanesulfonate as polyanion and synthetic (PCA5) or natural (chitosan) polycations. To get a direct image on the formation mechanism of the complex nanoparticles, colloidal titration, turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy have been used. The availability of the polycation to neutralize the polyanion charges, and thus to influence the particles characteristics, was strongly influenced by its chain flexibility.
Keywords: polyelectrolyte complex dispersions, optical density, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, chitosan.

Flocculation Properties of Polyelectrolyte Complex Dispersions Based on Synthetic and Natural Polycations

MARCELA MIHAI, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 163 - 170
Abstract
The flocculation of kaolin by positively charged nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex (NIPEC) nanoparticles formed by the interaction of an ionic/nonionic random copolymer of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate with some polycations either synthetic (integral type) or natural (chitosan), comparative with staring polycations has been evaluated. The NIPEC nanoparticles were more effective than polycations in the kaolin separation, especially at low molar ratios between charges, when the flocculation window was more then double at an optimum dose lower than that of starting polycations. The main advantage of NIPECs is the increase of critical concentration for kaolin re- stabilization, the NIPEC particles adsorbed on the kaolin surface protecting them more efficient against re-dispersion.
Keywords: polyelectrolyte complex dispersions, flocculation, kaolin, chitosan.

Adsorption of Heavy Metals on Ionic Composites Based on Chitosan

MARIA VALENTINA DINU, ECATERINA STELA DRĂGAN

pages 171 - 178
Abstract
The adsorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions, from aqueous solutions, on ionic composites based on chitosan and clinoptilolite, a widespread natural zeolite, has been investigated. The factors influencing the adsorption capacity of the ionic composites such as the initial pH, contact time and the initial concentration of M2+ were examined. The kinetics of adsorption process and the adsorption isotherms parameters were evaluated.
Keywords: chitosan, ionic composite, heavy metals, adsorption.

Electrochemical Aspects of Ti-Ta Alloys in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution with Albumin Protein

DANIEL MARECI, ROMEU CHELARIU, GEORGIANA CIURESCU, DANIEL SUTIMAN, IULIA CLAUDIA MÎRZA ROŞCA

pages 179 - 189
Abstract
Corrosion behaviour of the studied Ti-Ta alloys with Ta contents of 30, 40 and 50 wt.% together with the currently used metallic biomaterials commercial pure titanium (Cp-Ti) were investigated for biomedical applications. All the samples were tested by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) with albumin protein at 25ºC. The experimental results confirm that the electrochemical behaviour of the studied Ti-Ta alloys is better to that Cp-Ti, suggesting their promising potential for biomedical applications.
Keywords: Ti-Ta alloy, corrosion resistance, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS.

Evaluation of the Adsorption Potentials and Kinetics of Two Hypercrosslinked Polymeric Resins and Activated Carbon for Hexane Vapors

MARILENA ADELA BUBURUZAN, CEZAR CATRINESCU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 191 - 202
Abstract
The adsorption potentials of a new type of non-functionalized hyper¬cross-linked polymers Hypersol Macronet, MN 202 and MN 250 for removing of n- hexane vapors from saturated atmosphere were evaluated. The experiments were performed comparatively with the adsorption of n-hexane vapors onto a granular activated carbon, AC 20. The experiments were performed to determine also loading rates of n- hexane onto adsorbents. The results shows that the adsorption capacity, q (mg/g), for n- hexane vapors from a saturated atmosphere are greater for MN 250 and MN 202 polymers than thus for AC 20 (350, 290 and respectively 200 mg/g). Analyses of the rates data with three theoretical models (pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order reaction models and the Elovich model) were used to describe the n- hexane adsorption kinetics. Adsorption rate constants were determined by graphical analysis of the proposed models. The study showed that adsorption systems followed a pseudo-second-order reaction model provides an acceptable description of the adsorption process.
Keywords: adsorption, hyper-cross-linked polymers, hexane, kinetics, VOCs.

2010, Issue LVI (LX), Fasc. 2

Assessment of Combined Wastewater Treatment for 4-Chlorophenol Removal

DANIELA CĂILEAN, CARMEN TEODOSIU

pages 11 - 19
Abstract
Priority organic pollutants are a class of chemicals which are hazardous for the human health and the environment and also very resistant to conventional wastewater treatment, this being the reason why advanced treatment processes (such as ultrasonication and ultrafiltration) are used for their removal. Both processes have good results in the degradation of priority organic pollutants such as 4-chlorophenol. Several common advantages of these processes may be mentioned, i.e. small usage of chemical reagents, decrease of secondary pollution, lack of special conditions for temperature and pressure for ultrasonication, lack of chemical reactions leading to toxic products or intermediates, good degree of separation and recovery, high retention rate and selectivity for ultrafiltration. The aim of this preliminary laboratory- scale study is to analyze the conditions for the efficient removal of 4-chlorophenol from wastewater by advanced treatment under different initial conditions, using a membrane process- ultrafiltration and/or ultrasonication. Experimental results show an average 4-chlorophenol removal efficiency of 40 %.
Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, ultrafiltration, ultrasonication, wastewater treatment.

Models for Sustainable Waste Management

CRISTINA GHINEA, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 21 - 36
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to review the types of models that are currently being used in the area of waste management and to highlight some major advantages and shortcomings of these models. The study is based on the reality that, for a waste management model to be sustainable, it must consider environmental, economic and social aspects. Most of the waste management models identified in the literature, especially for municipal waste, are decision support models, divided into three categories: based on cost benefit analysis, based on life cycle assessment and based on multicriteria decision making. The study analyses the model abilities to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies, as well as their potential environmental impacts. Also, using waste management models, the most environmentally sustainable solution could be identified which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system.
Keywords: model, recycling, sustainability, waste management.

Equilibrium Study of Cd(II) Sorption from Aqueous Solution onto Soil: Effect of Temperature

RALUCA MARIA HLIHOR, VASILE LUCIAN PAVEL, DUMITRU BULGARIU, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 37 - 46
Abstract
Cadmium is a non-essential element and one of the most hazardous trace elements, being considered a “priority metal” from the standpoint of potential hazard to human health. Toxic metal ions such as Cd(II) can eventually reach the top of food chain and thus, become a risk factor for peoples health. Sorption of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution onto soil was studied as a function of temperature using a batch technique. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe sorption isotherm of metal ions. The maximum sorption capacity (qmax) increase with the increasing of temperature (5.37 mg/g at 284 K and 9.06 mg/g at 314 K) which suggested that Cd(II) sorption from aqueous solution onto soil was dependent on temperature. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy (AH º), entropy (AS º) and Gibbs free energy (AG º) were calculated from the temperature – dependent sorption isotherms.
Keywords: equilibrium, heavy metal, soil, sorption, thermodynamic parameters.

Influence of Some Parameters on Sorption of Erythrosine B onto Soil

LAURA CARMEN APOSTOL, FLORENTINA ANCA CĂLIMAN, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 47 - 56
Abstract
An equilibrium study concerning the sorption of the dye Erythrosine B in an aqueous solution, onto a Romanian soil was performed in a batch system. The influence of two parameters as temperature and pH of the dye containing solution has been investigated. The thermodynamic parameters were determined as well.
Keywords: dyes, parameters, soil, sorption.

Pneumatic (Bio)Reactors Applied in Environmental Protection

PETRONELA COZMA, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 57 - 76
Abstract
This paper is an overview on the most recent application of pneumatic (bio)reactors in environmental protection. In the last decades pneumatic bioreactors have extensively been studied and applied in chemical and biotechnological process as well as in environmental protection because of their functional and economics advantages, such as: simple design and construction, high efficiency of homogenization and intense mixing for heat and mass transfer and low power consumption. This analysis considers the pneumatic bioreactors ranking in two main categories: bubble columns and air-lift bioreactors. These heterogeneous reactors are examined considering their intensive application as multiphase contactors and (bio)reactors in chemical, biochemical industries and environmental remediation. Investigation of design parameters characterizing the operation and transport phenomena is considered opportune for a better understanding of the hydrodynamic properties, heat and mass transfer mechanisms and flow regime characteristics ongoing during the operation. In particular, air-lift reactors have received much attention because of their unique hydrodynamic characteristics, which make them more attractive than bubble column reactors for many processes. Aerobic bio- treatment of the wastewater, gaseous streams and contaminated soils may be successfully performed in three-phase flow pneumatic bioreactors.
Keywords: airlift reactor, bubble column, wastewater treatment.

Overview on the Economic Assessment of Pollution Prevention/Cleaner Production Practices

MĂDĂLINA PETRARU, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 77 - 93
Abstract
The paper provides a synthetic study concerning the technical and economic assessment of pollution prevention/cleaner production practices based on the available technologies in some relevant industries and highlights critical factors influencing strategic decisions on the adoption of Best Available Technologies in the light of IPPC Directive. A baseline for comparative purposes is established to properly determine the cost of any project. Changes in material consumption, equipment, technology, utility demands, manpower etc., for the considered pollution prevention options can be evaluated as either more or less expensive than the baseline. The benefit to cost ratio (B/C) is taken as a basic measure, which indicates if a project is economically worthwhile to invest in. The present value of net benefits (PVNB) shows the worth of a pollution prevention project in terms of a present value sum. Even if the analysis confirms the potential of pollution prevention/cleaner production practices to generate significant cost savings with a short payback time, it highlights the need of funds for research and to access the know-how necessary to implement new and cleaner technologies.
Keywords: economic aspects, pollution prevention, clean production.

Study Concerning the Amortization of the Environmental Expenses

LILIANA TOPLICEANU, DIANA SMEU

pages 95 - 104
Abstract
The paper explores the connection and the dispute between economic growth and ecology. Investments in infrastructure to combat the environmental impact must be considered since the design phase of the economic purpose and the study case presented highlights this idea.
Keywords: environment, economy, expenses amortization.

About the Connection Between Environment and Economy

LlLIANA TOPLICEANU

pages 105 - 109
Abstract
Environmental degradation caused by industrialization led to the emergence of the green economy concept. According to this, any economic activity should be analyzed and accompanied by measures to protect environment
Keywords: environment, sustainable development, economy.

Use of Native Epigeic Mosses to Study Atmospheric Deposition of Pb and Cd

IONELA MEZDREA COJOCĂREANU PATA, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 111 - 120
Abstract
It were investigated some atmospheric sediments of lead and cadmium in mining areas of Dorna Basin by passive monitoring with six species of native epigeic moss (Mnium hornum, Mnium cuspidatum, Mnium punctatum, Polytrichum strictum, Thamnium alopecurum si Cephalozia bicuspidate) in two stages: April - September 2005 and October 2005 - March 2006. These determinations were achieved in 4 locations: Dealul Boambei, Saru Dornei, Sări%orul Mic, Neagra Sarului. In the same time was determined the concentration of these elements in soil. It was noticed a decrease of lead and cadmium concentrations in the second stage comparing to the first. The concentration factor (CF) values shows a maximum accumulation in the selected epigeic mosses. There are presented external and internal factors that affect passive absorption of the heavy metals in the atmosphere. High capacity retention of the same moss species is due to both environment mental factors and high content of the complex compounds in their composition.
Keywords: atmospheric deposition, heavy metals, biomonitoring.

Complexing Hg(II) with N,N’-Bis(Saliciliden)-Methin-Methyl-Diamine and Characterization of the New Compound

IRINA SPĂTĂRESCU, IOAN ROSCA, DOINA SIBIESCU, MIHAELA AURELIA VIZITIU

pages 121 - 127
Abstract
In this paper are presented the results of the synthesis and characterization of the new compound resulted from the interaction between Hg(II) and N,N’-bis(saliciliden)-methin-methyl-diamine. The methods used for study are: elemental chemical analysis, IR absorption spectroscopy, thermal-gravimetry analysis. The obtaining reaction of the new compound can be used in analytic gravimetric determining of Hg(II).
Keywords: Hg(II); N,N’-bis(saliciliden)-methin-methyl-diamine; synthesis; thermal¬gravimetrical analysis.

Modeling of Dispersions of Powder Emissions from the Industrial Area of Vaslui

MIHAELA BUDIANU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 129 - 138
Abstract
The toxicity of the heavy metals being well-known, the study concerning their environmental impacts is more and more increased. The heavy metals originate from different sources but one may state that the most significant one is the emission of heavy metals by the economic agents. Regarding the study of the heavy metals transfer to soil, a great attention is given to the dispersion of the pollutants emanated by different sources. This paper presents the data of a study on the dispersion of the powders emitted by 14 point sources from 5 economical agents: SC STEMAR SA Vaslui, SC TERMICA SA Vaslui, SC Fabrica de căramizi SRL Vaslui, SC ULEROM SA Vaslui, SC VASCAR SA Vaslui, using the ECO 95ep program for modeling the dispersion of a pollutant caused by a point source.
Keywords: heavy metals, pollutants dispersion, dispersion models, suspended powders.

Research on the Concentration of Phenols and Heavy Metals in the Danube Water

NICOLETA ROADEVIN, CONSTANTIN STANCIU, IONUł RĂDULESCU

pages 139 - 146
Abstract
The condition of the ecosystems, purification and biological purification and human health are all impacted by a number of toxic substances. These include phenols, heavy metals and inorganic salts. The study outlines the evolution of the phenols, heavy metals concentrations and the cause of their variations throughout 1998<2008. The rates obtained for the monitored indicators (2008) place Brăila county river waters under class II of surface water quality.
Key word: toxic substances, heavy metals, phenols, ecosystems, purification.

Wastewater Treatment By Adsorption on the Multipurpose Carbon Materials

PETRE CHIPURICI, ADINA IONUȚA GAVRILĂ, IOAN CĂLINESCU, GEORGETA PREDEANU, ANCA MIHAELA BULEARCĂ

pages 147 - 155
Abstract
The multipurpose carbon materials (MCM) are porous products resulted from the carbonization and activation of the following materials used in our study: peach and plum kernels, particleboard PAL and soybean hulls. The paper presents a method for the removal of anionic surfactant (Dodecyl sulfate sodium salt) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto MCM using dynamic conditions. The anionic surfactant has usually been determined by spectrophotometric methods, using Methylene Blue. Experimental studies have been demonstrated the possibility of surfactant removal by adsorption onto MCM. The breakthrough point depends on the MCM parent type; the treated water volume increases with the adsorbent column height and with the decreasing of the concentration and supply flow.
Keywords: anionic surfactant, waste water treatment, adsorption, activated carbon.

The Synthesis and the Study in Solid Stade of a New Coordination Compound of Ni(II) with Organic Ligand

SIMONA TURCUMAN (ANTIGHIN), DOINA SIBIESCU, IOAN ROSCA, MIHAELA VIZITIU

pages 157 - 165
Abstract
In this paper, the synthesis and study of a coordinative compound resulted from the reaction between the ligand 1-(3- brome-2-hiyroxy-4-methyl-phenyl)-2- (4–brome-phenylsulfanyl)-etanone, with Ni(II) in the molar ratio 2:1, is presented. In order to characterize the new compound, the following methods were used: chemical analysis, thermal gravimetric measurements, IR absorption spectroscopy and electronic spin resonance. The experimental results show that the obtaining reaction of the new compound can be useful for gravimetric determining of Ni(II) with ± 0.27% errors.
Keywords: organic ligand, complex compound, Ni(II), gravimetric analysis.

A New Coordination Compound of Ni(II) with Ligand Derived from 1 - (3,5-Dibromo-2-Hydroxy-4-Methyl-Phenyl)-2-(Naphtylsulphanyl)-Ethanone

SIMONA TURCUMAN (ANTIGHIN), DOINA SIBIESCU, IOAN ROSCA

pages 167 - 174
Abstract
In this paper, the authors continue the researches on obtaining new coordination compounds from transitional metals, by presenting a new complex containing Ni(II) and a ligand derived from 1-(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-phenyl)- 2- (naphtylsulphanyl)-ethanone. This new complex was synthesized in aqueous solution by mixing 250 mL 10-2M of NiCl2 and respectively 250 mL 2 10-2M of 1-(3,5-dibromo-2- hydroxy-4-methyl-phenyl)-2-(naphtylsulphanyl)- ethanone, and stirring them at room temperature. The study of this compound was performed with the following methods: chemical analysis, thermogravimetry, IR absorbtion spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopic resonance (RES) and X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic system with Ni(II), as central atoms, hexa-coordinated in octahedral structures. The obtaining reaction of this new complex can be used in gravimetric determination of Ni(II) with an error of ± 0,35%.
Keywords: Ni(II), 1-(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-phenyl)-2-(naphtylsulphanyl)- ethanone, reagent of precipitating, , thermogravimetry, IR absorbtion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction , RES.

A Mathematical Modeling of Metallic Surfaces Degreasing Process

GIANNINA ACATRINEI (MERLAN), TIBERIU-MIHAI STURZU, MATEI MACOVEANU, MIHAI NICU

pages 175 - 182
Abstract
Metal products need degreasing processes for removing fat substances out of their surfaces, especially before a mechanical or chemical processing of their surfaces. The paper depicts the fact that degreasing process leads to a low decrease of tensile strength and it offers mathematical models for the study of process’s parameters influence. Mathematical models were established using passive experiments and a compound-central routable program of second order, being validated on the basis of some statistical tests.
Keywords: degreasing process, tensile strength, compound-central routable program of second order, level contours, 3- D representation.

Sorption and Desorption Characteristics of Acid Orange 7 on Soil

CAMELIA SMARANDA, MARIA GAVRILESCU, DUMITRU BULGARIU

pages 183 - 191
Abstract
The paper describes the sorption and desorption of an anionic azo dye, Acid Orange 7, from aqueous solutions onto soil from Iași area. The adsorption - desorption experiments were conducted by the batch mode data were analyzed with different mathematical models to describe the characteristics and mechanism of adsorption - desorption of dye in soil. The results showed that the adsorption-desorption isotherms of Acid Orange 7 fitted for the Freundlich model well, and the physical reaction presents the main contribution during the adsorption-desorption process. For desorption studies were used distilled water, 0.01 M calcium chloride solution and ethyl alcohol 20%; and four desorption cycles were carried out. Also, the effect of pH of the dye solution on the amount of dye sorbed and desorbed was studied; the increase in initial pH of the dye solution decreased the amount of dye sorbed on soil.
Keywords: sorption, desorption, Acid Orange 7, isotherms, hysteresis.

Institutional Aspects Regarding Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Assessment in the North-Eastern Region of Romania

CAMELIA ARDELEANU, CARMEN TEODOSIU

pages 193 - 200
Abstract
There is a continue need to ensure better services capable to reach EU standards in water supply and wastewater sector. This requires the adoption and implementation of adequate development policies, focused on people real needs, and accessibility of services. “Regionalization” is a key aspect of development policy for water services. This policy aims to improve the sector performances through better management and professionalism. The eligibility criteria for accessing European funds for water sector require a regional operator to be established by the local authority’s beneficiary. From an institutional point of view, the framework of regionalization comprises three key elements: Intercommunity Development Association (IDA), Regional Operator Company (COR) and Delegation of Management Services contract. This paper presents an analysis of the institutional needs for water and wastewater infrastructure and the problems in establishing these institutional requirements, in the North - Eastern Region of Romania.
Keywords: Regionalization, Intercommunity Development Association (IDA), Regional Operator Company (COR), Delegation of Management Services contract.

The Optical Features of Silver - Layered Double Hydroxides Nanostructured Ensembles Studied By UV-Vis Spectroscopy

CRISTIAN DRANCA, GABRIELA CARJA, SOFRONIA DRANCA

pages 201 - 208
Abstract
Nanosized silver-LDH nanostructured ensembles were obtained by a facile, environmentally friendly synthesis route. MgAlLDH and ZnAlLDH were used as biocompatible matrices with porous properties. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to study the optical properties of the nanoparticles of silver supported on the clay. The absorption band recorded in the UV-Vis spectral range is assigned to silver surface plasmon (SPR) of nanosized silver.
Keywords: layered double hydroxides, silver nanoparticles, optical properties, nanostructured ensembles, SPR.

2010, Issue LVI (LX), Fasc. 3

About the Reactivity of Some Chemical Elements

SAVEL IFRIM

pages 9 - 15
Abstract
Chemical reactivity of atoms or molecules is not determined by the valence electrons only or by the presence of chemical functions alone. This property is due to the whole electronic structure of atoms and to the entire chemical structure of molecules respectively. To trigger any chemical reaction electron travels have to occur. Alkali metal atoms are able to easily dispose of their valence electrons, due to a very low ionization potential compared with the ionization potentials for the removal of a second or a third electron. A similar behaviour exists for alkaline earth metals. When disposing of valence electrons of an alkaline earth metal atom, the ionization energies needed are relatively low. To remove the third electron, these energies are much higher. Given the peripheral electronic density (σ) in the case of alkali atoms and alkaline earth ones, one can note that this is very small compared to the same peripheral density of the corresponding cations (σ+). So on the surface of monovalent or bivalent cations there is an electro-negative force that generates an action of rejection or expulsion of the valence electrons, which is manifested by very rapid oxidation of these metals. Their oxidation does not occur in the presence of alkanes. This general property of metals to easily form an oxide film by mere contact with air is explained by the electronic structure of atoms which generates a force of rejection or expulsion of peripheral electrons. One can say that the principle of peripheral electron rejection is at work.
Keywords: chemical reactivity, ionization potential, peripheral electronic density.

Possibilities of Recovery Vanadium Pentaoxide from Waste Catalysts Used in Sulfuric Acid Industry

NECULAI FOCA, DANIEL SUTIMAN, MIHAELA-AURELIA VIZITIU, DANIEL MARECI

pages 17 - 26
Abstract
In this paper, are presented experimental data regarding divanadium pentaoxide (V2O5) from used V2O5 catalysts resulted in the obtaining process of sulfuric acid. An oxidizing method of different vanadium species (V3+, V4+) from solutions resulted in the reactions between used catalysts – distilled water with sodium hypochlorite, is presented in this work. The solutions treated with this oxidizing reagent contain finally Fe3+ and V5+, as main cations. In order to obtain V2O5 of high purity, the separation of V5+ from Fe3+ is necessary. This process can be accomplished by chemical methods or, more efficiently, by the ionic change method. In this paper, some dosage methods for V(V) and Fe(III) from solutions of waste catalysts are presented. Also, some chemical precipitating methods of vanadium (V) from solutions are discussed. Divanadium pentaoxide is the only vanadium oxide used in the oxidizing process of SO2 to SO3, in sulfuric acid industry. The catalysts used in this process is a mix of oxides: V2O5-K2O(Na2O)-Fe2O3-SiO2. The active component is V2O5, the promotor is K2O or Na2O and the inert support is SiO2.
Keywords: waste catalyst, divanadium pentaoxide, sodium hypochlorite, pH; spectrophotometric methods, exchanging ion resins.

Method to Assessing the Degradation in Soil of Lignocellulosic Composites for Seedling Pots

MIHAIL LUPEI, FLORIN CIOLACU, ELENA BOBU

pages 27 - 36
Abstract
This paper is part of a larger study that aims to develop and evaluate a technology for obtaining a composite based on fibrous materials, that can be used as biodegradable nutritional pots for seedling, and which must fulfill the current needs of agriculture, and environmental protection requirements also. Difficulty in obtaining optimal proprieties of these materials consists in achieving good strength properties, in both dry and wet states, for first stage of seeding process, simultaneously with a potential for gradual degradation of the pots after their transfer in the soil. The aim of this work was to develop a method to simulating the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of seedling pot material in soil. In this respect, special equipment was developed, consisting of a container as support for seedling soil and a system for climate conditioning (soil humidity and temperature). This equipment was used to evaluate degradation in time of composites for seedling pots obtained with different additives for controlling dry and wet strength properties. The results of these experiments have as shown that method is adequately to assess the effectiveness of strength additives and to optimize the properties of composite for seedling pots.
Keywords: biodegradable pots, seedling, strength, additives, degradation.

The Analysis of the Voltage Balance and of Energy Consumption in the Process of Chrome Electrodeposition

LILIANA LAZĂR, FLORIN BANDRABUR

pages 37 - 47
Abstract
The assessment of the performances of an electrochemical reactor (electrolyser), as well as of the process efficiency is achieved by the energy yield necessary for obtaining a certain amount of reaction product, meaning the amount of chrome electrodeposited onto a metallic support. The practical energy consumption is directly proportional with the terminal voltage of the electrolyser. This depends on the electrolyte composition and the operating parameter and is significantly influenced by the voltage drop through the electrolyte. For an electrochemical reactor that functions at a certain temperature, the proper selection of the distance between the electrodes, in order to decrease the voltage drop through the electrolyte and, consequently, the energy consumption, is essential. The analysis of the voltage balance for the process of chromium electroplating in order to establish the mathematical relationship of the voltages at the terminals of the electrolyser and the specific consumption of electric energy in function of the distance between the electrodes and the thickness of chrome electrochemical deposited is performed in this paper.
Keywords: chromium electroplating, voltages balance, specific energy consumption.

Aldehyde Condensation Polymers of Ketones. II. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Acetone – Formaldehyde Resin

ANA NICONOV, CAMELIA MIHĂILESCU, CONSTANŢA IBĂNESCU, SIMONA BISTRICEANU, VICTOR BULACOVSCHI

pages 49 - 59
Abstract
A new resin based on acetone-formaldehyde condensate and small quantities of 4-hexyl-resorcinol was prepared and characterized by FT-IR and thermogravimetry. A rheological study of the prepared viscous resin was also accomplished and the obtained data were compared with those obtained for acetone-formaldehyde resin.
Keywords: hexylresorcinol, acetone, formaldehyde, condensation, rheology.

Artemisinin, a Novel Antimalarial Drug from Nature

BIANCA IVĂNESCU, GABRIELA CIOBANU

pages 61 - 71
Abstract
Artemisinin is a modern, potent and very efficient drug used in treatment of malaria. It is effective even against multi- drug resistant strains of the malaria parasite and in cases of cerebral malaria. Artemisinin or qinghaosu is a sesquiterpene lactone produced by the aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae family), a plant that has been used to treat fever and malaria for more than 2000 years in China. Nowadays, artemisinin and its derivatives are recommended by the World Health Organisation to be used as first choice therapy in the treatment of malaria as part of ACT (artemisinin combination therapy). The drug is also effective against other parasites (Toxoplasma, Schistosoma, and Leishmania) and has anticancer properties useful in breast cancer, leukaemia, colon and small-cell lung carcinomas.
Keywords: artemisinin, Artemisia annua, antimalarial.

Characterization of Ceria–(Ni, Fe, Co) Mixed Oxides Synthesised Via Solid State Reaction

GABRIELA ANTOANETA APOSTOLESCU, ISABELA CONSTANŢA LUCHIAN, NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU, JEANINA COZMA

pages 73 - 80
Abstract
This paper present some experimental data regarding synthesis of efficient and inexpensive smart materials that can be used in several areas of heterogeneous catalysis, components for solid oxide fuel cells, amperometric sensors, gas storage materials as powders or thin and thick films. Mixed metals oxide materials are synthesised via solid state process starting from high-purity Fe2(C2O4)3, NiC2O4, CoC2O4 and Ce2(C2O4)3. The synthesized materials were carried out employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM and FESEM), FTIR spectroscopic analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).
Keywords: ceria mixed oxides, solid state reaction, thermal analysis.

2010, Issue LVI (LX), Fasc. 4*

Study of the Influence of Degreasing Metallic Surfaces Process Parameters on Elongation at Break

GIANNINA ACATRINEI (MERLAN), TIBERIU-MIHAI STURZU, MATEI MACOVEANU

pages 11 - 21    Download
Abstract
The paper offers some mathematical models which show the relationships between elongation at break and the parameters of degreasing process. Using a Central-Compound Routable Program of second degree, one found the mathematical model of elongation at break and the three parameters of degreasing process that were studied. Because there were found optimal points inside of the domain taken into analysis, the paper permits drawing of interesting conclusions on the management of metallic surfaces degreasing process.
Keywords: degreasing process, elongation at break, central-compound routable program of second order, level curves, 3D representation.

Overview of the Romanian Standards in Sensory Analysis

GABRIELA CIOBANU, OCTAVIAN CIOBANU

pages 23 - 32    Download
Abstract
Sensory analysis standards are indispensable instruments in the assessment of consumer products by the use of the human senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Paper presents an overview of Romanian standards in sensory analysis and a compare between Romanian and international standards. Sensory analysis standards help developers and producers in the evaluation of their products to ensure product quality, consumer satisfaction, and marketing success.
Keywords: sensory analysis, standards.

Synthesis and Characterization of Cu (II), Ni (II) Metal Complexes of Some Bis Schiff Bases

LUCIA TĂTARU, CORINA MĂLUŢAN, MIHAI VÂŢĂ, GABRIELA RUSU

pages 33 - 40    Download
Abstract
This paper presents the synthesis of bis Schiff bases by condensation of the β-hydroxy-α-naphthalic aldehyde with aromatic diamines, in acid catalysis, the molar ratio 2:1, major compounds in the coordinative chemistry. Bis Schiff bases have been converted to chelated metal complexes (Cu+2, Ni+2). Characterization of bis Schiff bases and metal complexes was achieved by FT-IR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis.
Keywords: bis Schiff bases, metal complexes, Cu(II), Ni(II).

Kinetics Study of Lead(II) Adsorption On Chitosan

DOINA ASANDEI, LAURA BULGARIU, ELENA BOBU

pages 41 - 49    Download
Abstract
In this study the adsorption of lead(II) from aqueous solutions on chitosan was investigated, from kinetic point of view. The influence of contact time, in optimum experimental conditions was studied in batch experiments. The obtained results have shown that the chemical interactions between metal ions and functional groups from chitosan surface might be the rate-limiting elementary process. The experimental data were analyzed using three kinetics models: pseudo-first order Lagregen model, pseudo-second order Ho model and intra-particle diffusion model. On the basis of these models, the kinetics parameters (rate constant and equilibrium adsorption capacity) for lead(II) ions adsorption on chitosan were calculated.
Keywords: lead(II), adsorption, chitosan, kinetics.

Iron Containing Layered Double Hydroxides: Structural, Textural Properties and Applications as Catalysts in Decolorization of Some Waters by Heterogenous Oxidative Processes

LAURA DÂRŢU, CARMEN ZAHARIA, GABRIELA CÂRJĂ

pages 51 - 61    Download
Abstract
The paper presents a laboratory study of the structural, textural properties of double layered hydroxides containing iron together with their preliminary experimental applications in some advanced processes of heterogenous catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide applied for water resources loaded with organic Orange 16 dye. The influence of different operational variables (i.e. stirring regime, pH, H2O2 concentration, concentration of catalyst based on layered double hydroxides containing Fe(III)/Fe(II), dye concentration, oxidation time) was experimentally studied in order to find the best values for high decolorization efficiency. A laboratory scale set-up decolorization experiment was performed for these values of the studied variables in the case on an effluent loaded with 80 mg/L Orange 16 dye. The highest decolorization efficiency (> 70 %) was performed at pH (1.8), continuous stirring regime (50 rpm), temperature of 19-20°C, with 0.176 M H2O2, 1.2 g catalyst/L, and after 30 min of advanced heterogenous oxidation.
Keywords: layered double hydroxides containing iron (FeLDH), azo dye, decolorization, heterogenous advanced oxidation process.

Preliminary Study of Decolourization of Some Textile Effluents by Homogenous Oxidative Processes

CARMEN ZAHARIA, LAURA DÂRŢU

pages 63 - 71    Download
Abstract
The paper presents a preliminary laboratory study of some homogenous oxidation processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced oxidation with Fenton reagent) applied for wastewaters loaded with textile Orange 16 dye. The influence of different operational variables (i.e. stirring regime, temperature, pH, H2O2 concentration, ferrous ions concentration, dye concentration, oxidation time) was studied in order to find the most indicated values for high decolourization efficiency. A laboratory scale set-up decolourization experiment was performed for these proposed values in the case of an effluent loaded with 80 mg/L Orange 16 dye. The highest decolourization efficiency (> 97 %) was performed at pH (5.3), temperature of 19-20°C, continuous stirring regime (50 rpm), with 35.29 mM H2O2, 0.68 mM Fe2+, and after only 5 min of homogenous advanced oxidation.
Keywords: textile effluent, decolourization, Orange 16 dye, homogenous advanced oxidation, Fenton reagent.

Life Cycle Assessment of Water and Wastewater Treatment Systems: an Overview

GEORGE BARJOVEANU, IULIA MARIA COMANDARU, CARMEN TEODOSIU

pages 73 - 86    Download
Abstract
Given the urgent need for reliable assessment instruments that can contribute to decision making processes within sustainable water resources management and reported capabilities of the Life cycle assessment (LCA) in this field, this paper presents the state-of-art regarding LCA methodology use in the analysis and evaluation of water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The literature review has shown that the use of current LCA methods are mainly focused on comparing the environmental impacts of existing or projected water and/or wastewater treatment technologies. The majority of these studies have focused on the energy consumption of various treatment technologies, and especially of the membrane processes. The LCA use in analyzing water services systems has grown significantly in the last years, but there are still some issues that can be improved including economic indicators and refining the impact categories by developing appropriate indicators and weighting scales for a true and reliable life cycle impact assessment.
Keywords: LCA, water supply systems, wastewater treatment systems.

Arsenate Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Using Rhamus Frangula and Calami Rhizoma

GABRIELA LEHUŢU, GABRIELA CÂRJĂ, NICOLAE APOSTOLESCU

pages 87 - 94    Download
Abstract
This paper reports the feasibility of using micro-particles of dried plants to remove As(V) from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. For this purpose, micro-particles of both Rhamus frangula and Calami rhizoma plants have been separately used as natural adsorbents without any pre-treatment. Effect of various process parameters, namely adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial arsenate solution concentration have been studied in batch system. The experimental data were analyzed using Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The results revealed that As(V) is considerably adsorbed on both dried plants and the adsorption process was dependent on the physical–chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, adsorbate concentration and other studied parameters; therefore it could be an economical method for arsenate removal from aqueous systems.
Keywords: Arsenate, dried plants, adsorption parameters.

Biological Active Effects of Forskolin Extract

CARMEN CIOTONEA, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 95 - 105    Download
Abstract
Forskolin is the main ingredient in the Ayurvedic herb Coleus Forskolii. Coleus is a member of mint family and grows mainly in the subtropical arias in India, Burma and Thailand. Forskolin has been used in the treatment of allergies, respiratory problems, cardiovascular disorders, glaucoma, psoriasis, hypothyroidism, weight loss etc. Forskolin increased cyclic AMP and appears to have additional actions that are due to its ability to alter a number of membrane transport proteins. In these review are included a comprehensive account of morphology, distribution, medicinal and cosmetic uses and pharmacological aspects for forskolin.
Keywords: Coleus Forskolii, Forskolin, morphology and distribution, medicinal and cosmetic applications.

Forskolin. Morphology. Extraction. Characterization

CARMEN CIOTONEA, CORINA CERNĂTESCU

pages 107 - 117    Download
Abstract
Coleus Forskolii is one of two hundreds species of Coleus from all over the world. These plants grow in tropical and subtropical regions in Asia, Africa and Australia. The main active compound from Coleus F. is a diterpene named Forskolin, found in the roots of the plant. The roots decoction and paste were used in the past in traditional treatment of many diseases. Nowdays Forskolin is used in the treatement of eczemas, psoriazis, cardiovascular disorders, glaucoma, hypertension etc. The isolation of forskolin is realized by the means of organic solvent extraction, followed by purrification through column chromatography, using activated charcoal as an absorbent. The forskolin was analyzed and characterized by TLC, HPTLC, HPLC, FTIR and electrospray ionization MS.
Keywords: Coleus Forskolii, Forskolin, extraction and purification methods, physico-chemical characterization.

Removal of Nitrates From Water in the Presence of Competitors Anions Using Purolite Resins

ANCA CEICĂ, LAURA BULGARIU, LILIANA LAZĂR, IGOR CREŢESCU, ION BALASANIAN

pages 119 - 131    Download
Abstract
In this paper was studied the influence of competitors anions, chloride and sulphate ions in the nitrates retention process from aqueous solutions, using three anion exchange resin: two non-selective anion exchange resin Purolite A-100 and Purolite A-847 and a selective resin, specially designed for the removal of nitrates from waters, Purolite A-520E. The resins performance was determined for aqueous solutions containing 50 mg NO3-/L and 100 mg NO3-/L nitrate concentrations, using batch mode study. To determine the influence of sulphate ions on the nitrate retention, the sulphate concentrations were increased gradually, in the range of 20 – 90 mg SO42-/L, and for the influence of chloride ions their concentration was 19 – 115 mg Cl-/L. For all three resins studied was observed the negative influence of individual competing anions by decreasing of retentions capacity of nitrates. For each resin was determined the concentrations of competitors ions which does not affect the retention capacity of nitrates.
Keywords: anionic resins, competing anions (Cl-, SO42-), nitrates removal, ion exchange.

Power Plant Ash Used as Adsorbent Material

MARIA HARJA, GABRIELA BUEMA, EUGENIA DONIGA, MARINELA BĂRBUŢĂ, DANIEL MIRCEA SUTIMAN

pages 133 - 138    Download
Abstract
Ash, generated during the combustion of coal, is an industrial waste which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. In present days, approximately 70 to 75 percent of generated fly ash is still disposed in landfills or storage lagoons. Much of this ash, however, is capable to be recovered and used. Some of these applications are: additives for heavy metals immobilization used in wastewater treatment; valuable metals extraction, such as Al, Si, Fe, V, Ni, Zn; sorbents for flue gas desulfurization; fireproof materials; production for soil amendment; filter material; ceramic products obtaining. Even the fly is considered a pollution source, it has practical applications in environmental protection. From these applications it was studied the recovery of this waste by: direct utilization for heavy metals and dye retentions. It was demonstrated that the fly ash does not pollute ground water. Experiences were effectuated at constant temperature in continue systems: column recrosses of liquid and stirrer reactor. For the different fly ash/ deionization water ratios the chemical composition and solution conductivity variations in time were determined. Removal for lead was 97% after 40 min. In the case of Astrazone blue the obtained removal was 98% after 60 min.
Keywords: capitalization, dye, fly ash, lead, removal.

Integrated Design and Control of Glycerol Etherification Processes

ELENA VLAD, COSTIN SORIN BILDEA, GRIGORE BOZGA

pages 139 - 148    Download
Abstract
The feasibility of an industrial-scale, acid-catalyzed process for etherification of glycerol with i-butene is analyzed. A simplified mass balance of the process is derived using a kinetic model for the reactor and black-box model for the separation section. Degree of freedom analysis is used to suggest plantwide control structures. Sensitivity analysis of the steady state model shows that the system exhibits both state multiplicity and regions where no solution exists. The nominal operating point is chosen to avoid high sensitivity to disturbances and to guarantee feasibility when operation and design parameters change or are uncertain. Detailed design is performed using AspenPlus. The stability and robustness in operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics.
Keywords: glycerol ethers, process design, process control, nonlinear behavior.

Removal of CO2 From Gas Streams In Airlift Reactors

PETRONELA COZMA, MARIA GAVRILESCU

pages 149 - 160    Download
Abstract
Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases have become a major environmental issue due to their intensive contribution on the global warming. In the last decades the removal of CO2 from gas mixtures has become an important industrial operation due to the necessity of different gases purification and from recovery reasons taking into accounts the large applications of CO2 in chemical and food industry. Various techniques have applied for CO2 removal. These technologies are based on different physical, chemical or biological processes. In addition several types of contactors have been reported for CO2 removal such as stirred tanks, packed columns, bubble columns and membrane contactors. This paper discusses the most recent application of airlift reactors in flue gas treatment, in particular the potential of application for the effective CO2 removal from contaminated flue gases taking into account the most important advantages of these devices: simple design and construction, no moving parts, high mass and heat transfer, intensive mixing, low shear stress to cells, low energy consumption, low operational costs. The most relevant characteristics and properties of CO2 as well as the most applied technologies for CO2 removal are reviewed in this paper, based on the information from literature data.
Keywords: airlift reactor, absorption, CO2 removal.